HANDBOOK OF ADHESIVESThird EditionEdited bylIVing Skeist, Ph. D.Consultant to the Polymer IndustriesSkeist IncorporatedWhippany, New JerseymCHAPMAN & HALLICD:IIInternational Thomson Publishing:"iew York 0 Albanv 0 Bonn 0 Boston 0 Cincinnati 0 Detroit 0 London 0 'dadrid 0 'Jelboume'Jexico City 0 Pacific"Grove 0 Paris 0 San Francisco 0 Singapore 0 Tokyo 0 Toronto 0 Washington

DISCLAIMERExtreme care has been taken in preparation of this work. However, neither the publisher nor the authors shall be held responsible or liable forany damages resulting in connection with, or arising from, the use of anyof the information in this book. Also, there is no warranty against patentinfringement.Copyright 1990 by Van Nostrand Reinhold, New Yorl , NYSoftcover reprint of the hardcover 3rd edition 1990This printing published by Chapman & Hall, New Yorl , NYFor more information contact:Chapman & Hall115 Fifth AvenueNew Yorl , NY 10003Chapman & Hall2-6 Boundary RowLondon SEI 8HNEnglandThomas Nelson Australia102 Dodds StreetSouth Melbourne, 3205Victoria, AustraliaChapman & Hall GmbHPostfach 100 2630-69442 WeinheimGermanyInternational Thomson EditoresCampos Eliseos 385, Piso 7Col. Polanco11560 Mexico D.F.MexicoInternational Thomson Publishing - JapanHirakawacho-cho Kyowa Building, 3F1-2-1 Hirakawacho-choChiyoda-ku, 102 TokyoJapanInternational Thomson Publishing Asia221 Hendenon Road #05-10Henderson BuildingSingapore 0315All rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means-graphic, electronic,or mechanical, including. photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems-without the written permission of thepublisher.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 XXX 01 00 99 98 97 96Library of Congress Cataloglng-in-Puhlicatlon DataHandbook of adhesives / edited by Irving Skeist.-3rd ed.p.em.ISBN-13: 978-1-4612-8019-4DOl: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0671-9I. Adhesives. I. Skeist, Irving.TP968.H351989667'.3-dc30e-ISBN-13: 978-1-4613-0671-989-9082CIPVISit ChapmlUl & HaD on tlte [monet http://www.c1taphalLcomichaphaILhtmlTo order this or any other Chapman & Hall book, please contact International Thomson Publishing, 7625 Empire Drive, Florence, KY41042. Phone (606) 525-6600 or 1-800-842-3636. Fax: (606) 525-7778. E-mail: [email protected] a complete listing of Chapman & Hall titles, send your request to Chapman '" HaD, Dept. BC, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003.

ContributorsJohn S. Autenrieth, Wilmington, Delaware,retiredJustin C. Bolger, W. R. Grace & Co.,Lexington, MassachusettsRobert L. Brandis, St. Johnsville, New YorkArnold Brief, Skeist Incorporated, Whippany,New JerseyLeonard S. Buchoff, Huntington Valley,PennsylvaniaCarolyn N. Bye, National Casein of NewJersey, Riverton, New JerseyH.W. Coover, Loctite Corporation,Newington, ConnecticutWiley Daniels, Air Products and Chemicals,Inc., Allentown, PennsylvaniaG. A. Davies, Shell Company, Houston,TexasJohn W. Dean, General Electric Company,Waterford, New YorkD. W. Dreifus, Loctite Corporation,Newington, ConnecticutErnest F. Eastman, E. I. du Pont de Nemours& Co., Inc., Wilmington, DelawareMichael Elias, Chemark Consulting Group,Inc., Cincinnati, OhioE. E. Ewins, Shell Development Company,Houston, TexasP. H. Farmer, Monsanto Company,Springfield, MassachusettsKendall F. Foley, Hercules Incorporated,Wilmington, DelawareL. A. Fox, The B.F. Goodrich Company,Akron, OhioLawrence Fullhart, Jr., retiredAnthony C. Gaeta, Carborundum AbrasivesCompany, Niagara Falls, New YorkK. F. Gazeley, Malaysian Rubber Producers'Research Association, Brickendonbury,Hertford, EnglandDavid R. Gehman, Rohm and HaasCompany, Springhouse, PennsylvaniaA. N. Gent, University of Akron, OhioLawrence Gollob, Georgia-PacificCorporation, Decatur, GeorgiaM. E. Gross, retiredSandra K. Guggenberger, E.1. du Pont deNemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington,DelawareG. R. Hamed, University of Akron, OhioJ. T. Harlan (deceased)Paul M. Hergenrother, National Aeronauticsand Space Administration, Hampton,VirginiaJ. J. Higgins, Exxon Chemical Company,Florham Park, New JerseyHarold Jaffe, Millburn, New JerseyFrank C. Jagisch, Exxon Chemical Company,Baton Rouge, LouisianaB. A. Jemmott, Monsanto Company,Springfield, MassachusettsHarry S. Katz, Utility DevelopmentCorporation, Livingston, New JerseyHarold W. Koehler, Hardman Industries,Inc., Belleville, New JerseyLeo Kruger, National Starch and ChemicalsCorporation, Bridgewater,New JerseyNorman Lacourse, National Starch andChemicals Corporation, Bridgewater, NewJerseyDonald E. Mackey, The B.F. GoodrichCompany , Avon Lake, OhioC. Lynn Mahoney, Dexter Corp., Pittsburg,Californiav

viCONTRIBUTORSBernard M. Malofsky, Loctite Corporation,Newington, ConnecticutJames G. Marsden, Union CarbideCorporation, Tarrytown, New YorkAllan R. Meath, Dow Chemical USA,Freeport, TexasC. A. Midgley, Polysar Limited, Sarnia,Ontario, CanadaRobert S. Miller, Franklin International,Columbus, OhioJerry Miron, Skeist Incorporated, Whippany,New JerseyJ. T. O'Connor, Loctite Corporation,Newington, ConnecticutJulian R. Panek, Yardley, PennsylvaniaL. A. Petershagen, Shell Chemical Company,Houston, TexasRobert E. Politi, American CyanamidCompany, Havre de Grace, MarylandJoseph W. Prane, Elkins Park,PennsylvaniaJ. B. Rea, Polysar Limited, Sarnia, Ontario,CanadaRussell Redman, Tremco, Inc., Cleveland,OhioJames T. Rice, University of Georgia,Athens, GeorgiaJohn M. Rooney, Sun Chemical Company,Carlstadt, New JerseyFranklin M. Rosenblum, Air Products andChemicals, Inc., Allentown, PennsylvaniaConrad Rossitto, Emhart, Middleton,MassachusettsGerald L. Schneberger, Training Resources,Inc., Flint, MichiganCharles S. Schollenberger, Hudson, OhioIrving Skeist, Skeist Incorporated, Whippany,New JerseyThomas S. Solomon, Brecksville, OhioN. E. Stucker, Exxon Chemical Company,Baytown, TexasSamuel C. Temin, Walpole, MassachusettsRichard T. Thompson, Loctite Corporation,Newington, ConnecticutFrederick Tobiason, Pacific LutheranUniversity, Tacoma, WashingtonHerb Turner, Nordson Corporation, Amherst,OhioIvor H. Updegraff, Stamford, ConnecticutW. C. Wake, Clive, Shrewsbury, EnglandCarl D. Weber, The B.F. GoodrichCompany, Akron, OhioCharles B. Weil, The B.F. GoodrichCompany, Avon Lake, OhioJ. D. Wellons, Georgia-Pacific Corporation,Decatur, GeorgiaWilliam F. Zimmer, Jr., Punta Gorda,Florida

PrefaceAdhesives are indispensable. They are required pling agents, and other key ingredients. Specialin myriad products-aircraft and abrasives, cars attention is given to such flourishing categoriesand cartons, shoes and safety glass, tape and as acrylics, anaerobics, cyanoacrylates, polytires. This Third Edition of Handbook of Ad- urethanes, epoxy resins, polyvinyl acetate, highhesives, like the 1962 and 1977 editions, seeks temperature adhesives, hot melts, silicones, andto provide the knowledge needed for optimum silanes.The last 14 chapters, on adherends and bondselection, preparation, and utilization of adhesives and sealants. The information is detailed ing technology, involve the auto industry, airand explicit, with several hundred illustrative craft, electronics, the bonding of wood,formulations.textiles, rubber and plastics, construction, abExpert information has been supplied in 47 rasives, pressure-sensitives, nonwovens, andchapters written by 70 industry specialists, pro- sealants. Mechanical handling of two-compofessors, and consultants. Five chapters on fun- nent systems is examined. The concludingdamentals provide the theoretical and economic chapter highlights the exciting progress that isunderpinnings-why adhesives work, how they being made in the use of robotics to apply adare selected, how the surface is prepared, how hesives, techniques already far advanced in authey are applied, how they are set, how the tomotive assembly.cured joint is tested. The economic importanceTo Jerry Miron and Arnold Brief of Skeistof the adhesive-using industries is spelled out, Incorporated, my long time consulting associwith specifics on the role of adhesives in con- ates, I express my gratitude and appreciationstruction, packaging, autos, aircraft/aerospace, for their invaluable support.textiles, footwear, abrasives, electronics, andin the home. The next 28 chapters cover theIRVING SKEISTadhesive materials-thermosetting, thermoplastic, elastomeric, natural polymers, couWhippany, New Jerseyvii

ContentsPreface/viiSection A. Fundamentals / ]1- Introduction to Adhesives-Irving Skeistand Jerry Miron / 32- The Role of Adhesives in theEconomy-Arnold Brief / 213- Fundamentals of Adhesion-A. N. Gentand G. R. Hamed / 394- Surface Preparation for AdhesiveBonding-C. Lynn Mahoney / 745- Adhesive Selection and ScreeningTesting-James T. Rice / 94Section B. Adhesive Materials / 1216- Animal Glue-Robert L. Brandis /'" 1237- Casein and Mixed Protein AdhesivesCarolyn N. Bye / 1358- Starch Based Adhesives-Leo Krugerand Norman Lacourse / 1539- Natural Rubber Adhesives-K. F.Gazeley and W. C. Wake / 16710- Butyl Rubber and Polyisobutylene-J. J.Higgins, Frank C. Jagisch, and N. E.Stucker / 18511- Nitrile Rubber Adhesives-Donald E.Mackey and Charles E. Weil / 20612- Styrene Butadiene Rubber AdhesivesC. A. Midgley and J. B. Rea / 22713- Thermoplastic Rubber (A-B-A BlockCopolymers) in Adhesives-J. T.Harlan, L. A. Petershagen, E. E. Ewins,Jr. and G. A. Davies / 23914- Carboxylic Polymers in Adhesives-C.D. Weber, L. A. Fox and M. E. Gross/ 27015- Neoprene (Polychloroprene)-BasedSolvent and Latex Adhesives-SandraK. Guggenberger / 28416- Polysulfide Sealants and AdhesivesJulian R. Panek / 30717- Phenolic Resin Adhesives-Frederick L.Tobiason / 31618- Amino Resin Adhesives-Ivor H.Updegraff / 34119- Epoxy Resin Adhesives-Allan R.Meath / 34720- Polyurethane- and Isocyanate-BasedAdhesives-C. S. Schollenberger /35921- Polyvinyl Acetate Emulsions forAdhesives-Harold L. Jaffe, FranklinM. Rosenblum and Wiley Daniels /38122- Polyvinyl Alcohol for AdhesivesHarold L. Jaffe and Franklin M.Rosenblum / 40123- Polyolefin and Ethylene Copolymerbased Hot Melt Adhesives-Ernest F.Eastman and Lawrence Fullhart, Jr. /40824- Polyvinyl Acetal Adhesives-P. H.Farmer and B. A. Jemmott / 42325- Acrylic Adhesives-David R. Gehman/ 43726- Anaerobic Adhesives-John M. Rooneyand Bernard M. Malofsky / 45127- Cyanoacrylate Adhesives-H. W.Coover, D. W. Dreifus, and J. T.O'Connor / 46328- Polyester and Polyamide HighPerformance Hot Melt AdhesivesConrad Rossitto / 478ix

x CONTENTS29· High Temperature Organic AdhesivesPaul M. Hergenrother / 49930· Silicone Adhesive Sealants andAbhesives-John W. Dean / 52231· Organofunctional Silane CouplingAgents-James G. Marsden / 53632· Non-Silane Coupling Agents-Harry S.Katz / 54933· Resins for Elastomer-Based AdhesivesJohn S. Autenrieth and Kendall F. Foley/ 556Section C. Adherends and BondingTechnology / 57134· Bonding Plastics-Richard T. Thompson/ 57335· Bonding Textiles to Rubber-Thomas S.Solomon / 58336· Wood Adhesion-Lawrence Gollob andJ. D. Wellons / 59837· Sealants and Caulks-Joseph W. Prane,Michael Elias and Russell Redman /61138· Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives for Tapesand Labels-Samuel C. Temin / 64139· Bonded Abrasives-William F. Zimmer,Jr. / 66440· Coated Abrasives-Anthony C. Gaeta/ 67141· Adhesives for Building ConstructionRobert S. Miller / 67842· Adhesives in the Electrical IndustryLeonard S. Buchoff / 69843· Conductive Adhesives-Justin C. Bolger/ 70544· Structural Adhesives in the AerospaceIndustry-Robert E. Politi / 71345· Adhesives in the Automobile IndustryGerald L. Schneberger / 72946· Meter, Mix and Dispensing Equipment:Basic Designs-Harold W. Koehler /73647· Robotic Dispensing of Sealants andAdhesives-Herb Turner / 743Index/757