12. Facility Type:Hotels and MotelsRevised December 200712.1 Challenges and Opportunities212.2 Energy-Use Profile312.3 Technical Recommendations4Retrocommissioning5Lighting8Load Reduction11Air Distribution Systems13Heating and Cooling Systems1512.4 Financial and Implementation Issues16Bibliography17GlossaryG-1ENERGY STAR Building Manual1
12. Facility Type: Hotels and Motels12.1 Challenges and OpportunitiesThe United States’ 47,000 hotels and motels spend an average of 2,196 per available roomeach year on energy, an amount that represents about 6 percent of all hotel operating costs.The varied nature of the physical facilities and the activities that they host can make energymanagement especially challenging, whether the facility is a large convention hotel, part ofa large national chain, or a small inn or motel. However, the opportunities for improvedguest comfort, longer equipment life, lower operating costs, and an improved corporate imagemake pursing energy efficiency worthwhile. ENERGY STAR partners in the lodging industryhave greatly reduced their expenditures on energy through measures such as lighting upgradesin guest rooms, lobbies, and hallways; occupancy-based guest-room energy controls; and theinstallation of energy-efficient water heating equipment, while still providing benefits for hotelguests, owners, operators, and shareholders.Hotels and motels operate 24 hours a day, hosting guests and offering various services and amenities. Guest rooms, public lobbies, banquet facilities and restaurants, lounges, offices, retailoutlets, and swimming pools fill the building or multiple buildings. Ice machines, vendingmachines, and game rooms may be scattered throughout. Laundries and kitchens are typicallylocated on-site. The variety of services and amenities provided and the need to operate aroundthe clock mean that lodging facilities present abundant opportunities for energy savings.ENERGY STAR Building ManualBuilding upgrades are especially demanding in hotels because there is never any downtime.Measures that are effective in other settings, such as occupancy sensing, time-clock control,and thermostat setbacks, must be implemented with great care in a hotel or motel so as not todetract from the experience of guests.2Nevertheless, the impact of rising energy costs (hotel utility costs increased an average of 12percent each year from 2004 to 2006) and growing concerns about global warming are leadinghotel operators to take action. Dozens of hotel operators are participating in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) ENERGY STAR buildings program. For example, AccorNorth America, one of the largest hotel chain owners and operators in North America, wasrecently recognized as an ENERGY STAR Leader by the EPA for achieving top energy performance, as signified by an average ENERGY STAR rating of 75 across its Red Roof Inn, Studio6, and Motel 6 properties. Among the measures implemented by the participating hotels werethe replacement of neon signs with light-emitting diode units, the swapping of compact fluorescent lamps for incandescent lamps, the installation of high-efficiency air-conditioning units,and the addition of attic insulation in older facilities. By introducing the energy performancerating to its portfolio, Accor is now better able to understand how its 900 properties stack upagainst each other and other similar hotels nationwide.Hotels and motels throughout the U.S. are also recognizing that many of their guests arebecoming more environmentally conscious and will support the hotels’ efforts to cut energyuse. For example, many hotels now offer guests the option of not having their sheets and towelslaundered every night. Many hotels are also taking a proactive approach, realizing that a stay atan energy-efficient hotel can teach guests the principles of green and sustainable design fromtheir lodging experience.Keeping in mind the continual maintenance or improvement of guest comfort and satisfaction, which is the primary consideration in any hotel building project, the following itemsshould be factored into energy-efficient upgrades:
Thermal comfort has a big impact on guest satisfaction, and because individuals have different preferences, a responsive, controllable HVAC system is important.nA sense of safety and security is important to the guest experience. Proper exterior lightingand adequate but not excessive lighting in hallways and stairways can enhance security.Efficient light sources, timers, and occupancy controls can make an efficient environmenta secure one as well.nIndoor air quality also affects the guest experience. Clean air free of mold, cleaning compounds, and smoke is not only healthier, it is more pleasant.nThe indoor acoustic environment should also be considered. Sounds from outside thebuilding, interior hallways, and building equipment such as fans, boilers, and compressorscan disrupt guests’ sleep.12.2 Energy Use ProfileConsider a hotel or motel’s largest energy loads when planning a retrofit strategy. Typically,nearly 75 percent of a hotel’s or motel’s total energy use can be attributed to space heating,water heating, lighting, and cooling combined (see Figure 12.1). Cooling and lighting alonemake up half of the building’s electricity consumption.12. Facility Type: Hotels and MotelsnEnergy intensity in hotels and motels varies widely and is affected by climate, number ofrooms, and types of on-site amenities. Energy intensity in hotels and motels can range fromless than 15,000 Btu per square foot (ft²) to over 300,000 Btu/ft² (Figure 12.2, page 4). Giventhis wide range and skewed distribution, it can be misleading to assess a hotel or motel facility’sperformance by looking at its average energy intensity alone.Figure 12.1: Electric and natural gas end-use profile for hotels and motelsMost of the electricity consumed by hotels and motels is used for space cooling and lighting. Typically, space heating represents the largest use of natural gas in hotels and motels.However, each facility’s energy profile is different, so these charts are not representative of alllodging facilities. Hotel and motel energy use will also vary depending on the types of amenities available.ElectricCooking9%Cooling27%Office equipment7%Other5%Space heating55%Water heating31%Space heating11%Other13%Lighting23%Courtesy: E SOURCE; from Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey, 1999 dataENERGY STAR Building ManualWater heating Cooking5%2%Refrigeration6%Ventilation7%Natural gas3
The median hotel or motel uses approximately 70,000 Btu per square foot (ft2) from all energysources. However, many lodging facilities are significantly more energy-intensive than that.40Median energy usage 70,624 Btu/ft235Number of hotels and motels (thousands)12. Facility Type: Hotels and MotelsFigure 12.2: Distribution of energy intensity in hotels and motels302520Top 25% ofhotels/motels15Bottom 25% ofhotels/motels1050050100150200250300350400Energy usage (thousand Btu/ft2)Courtesy: E SOURCE; from Commercial BuildingEnergy Consumption Survey, 2003 dataENERGY STAR Building ManualThe EPA’s national energy performance rating system is designed to provide a meaningfulbenchmark for hotels and motels. The rating system is accessible online as part of the EPA’sfree Portfolio Manager tool (www.energystar.gov/benchmark). It evaluates a hotel’s or motel’senergy intensity, normalizing for weather and operating characteristics. The rating is expressedon a scale of 1 to 100, signifying the percentile of performance. Hotels or motels that achievea rating of 75 or higher are performing in the top quartile and may be eligible to earn theENERGY STAR label. The rating serves as a standard of comparison against other hotels andmotels, and it provides a way to measure progress after upgrades are implemented.4All upgrade projects should begin by establishing a benchmark rating. The relative ENERGYSTAR performance ratings can help an organization to identify its best- and worst-performingfacilities. Although any hotel or motel may benefit from retrocommissioning, operationimprovements, and retrofits, it is usually most cost-effective to begin upgrade efforts with lowscoring facilities.For more information, visit ENERGY STAR for Hospitality at www.energystar.gov/hospitality.For descriptions of hotels that have earned the ENERGY STAR, visit www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction PARTNER LIST.showPartnerResults&partner type id CIO&s code ALL.12.3 Technical RecommendationsIn the highly competitive lodging industry, room rates cannot be raised easily, so reducingcosts can be a significant means of increasing margins and profits. After labor costs, energyexpenses represent the greatest portion of the annual operating budget for hotels and motels.With energy costs rising, it makes sense to invest in building upgrades that can help keep these
Common reasons for initiating energy-related upgrades in hotels and motels include:nCustomer complaintsnCorporate sustainability policiesnFrequent equipment malfunctions and shortened equipment lifetime due to years ofdeferred maintenancenPiecemeal additions to buildings and internal changes to existing spaces that have not beenaccompanied by corresponding changes to heating and cooling systemsnPrevious attempts to reduce energy use by inappropriate measures, such as covering ventsnMajor pieces of capital equipment or building elements, such as a boiler or a roof, that arenearing the end of their useful lifeFollowing the staged approach that is advocated throughout this manual can reveal opportunities for saving on capital costs by “right-sizing” major equipment. After lighting and loadreduction measures have been implemented, it may be possible to specify smaller heating andcooling equipment.12. Facility Type: Hotels and Motelscosts down. The EPA estimates that each 10 percent reduction in energy use is equivalent toimproving average room rate by 1.35 in full-service hotels ( 0.62 for limited-service hotels).Many of the recommendations provided here offer not only energy savings but also maintenancesavings. Please note that this should not be considered an exhaustive list of measures appropriate for hotels and motels. Operators and owners are encouraged to refer to the full guidelinespresented throughout this manual when planning and managing a retrofit program.RetrocommissioningEnergy savings and other benefits. Commissioning is a process during which engineersobserve a building and perform a “tune-up” to ensure that its systems are operating efficientlyand as intended. Commissioning typically takes place when a facility is first built; however, ifa building has never been commissioned, then it is ripe for retrocommissioning, which entailsa similar tune-up on an existing building. All buildings stand to benefit from regular recommissioning, which can then take place periodically throughout a building’s life. Studies haveshown that commissioning can save a typical 100,000-ft2 hotel 10 to 15 percent of its energycosts, or roughly 20,000 per year. Savings typically result from resetting existing controls toreduce HVAC waste while maintaining or even increasing comfort levels for occupants.Best practices. Some hotel owners are implementing guidelines and establishing standardcontractual requirements to ensure that retrocommissioning and recommissioning are doneproperly and in a timely fashion. If hotel staff has sufficient expertise and familiarity with abuilding’s systems, they may do these tune-ups, but otherwise, it may be advisable to outsourceat least some of the work.ENERGY STAR Building ManualIn addition to saving energy, retrocommissioning can help hotels and motels reduce equipment downtime and keep maintenance expenditures in check. Another reason to retrocommission and regularly recommission lodging facilities is to create a body of documentationdemonstrating that building systems are operating properly. Retrocommissioning is also animportant tool for ensuring that a hotel’s indoor air quality standards are met. Safety is anotherconsideration if the fire alarm and smoke-detection systems are integrated with other buildingsystems. Problems with low-voltage electrical systems such as lighting, alarm, and buildingmanagement systems are frequently identified during retrocommissioning.5
12. Facility Type: Hotels and MotelsAfter initial commissioning or retrocommissioning, a hotel should be recommissioned everythree to five years to maintain optimal performance. The precise timing will vary dependingon the timing of changes in the facility’s use, the quality and schedule of preventive maintenance activities, and the frequency of operational problems. Commissioning should also beperformed after major remodels or additions.Even if a hotel or motel was commissioned when it was first built, the building’s use patternsmay have changed over time, settings may have been altered, and equipment may no longer befunctioning the way it should. If a facility appears to be using more energy than expected whencompared with past performance or with other similar lodging facilities, recommissioning orretrocommissioning is a great place to start looking for energy-saving opportunities. Othersigns that it is time for retrocommissioning include inadequate ventilation or a high volume ofcomfort-related calls from guests.Tune-up opportunities. There are a number of easy measures that can reduce energy usein various areas of the hotel:nPeripheral and back rooms. Make sure that HVAC settings in lobbies, offices, and othersuch peripheral rooms are at minimum settings during hours of low use.nLaundry. Set laundry hot water to 120 Fahrenheit. This is a good temperature for all hotwater uses outside of the kitchen, where codes are specific about water temperature.nPools and hot tubs. Make sure that all pools and hot tubs are covered after hours to diminishheat loss.nHousekeeping procedures. Encourage housekeepers to turn off all lights and set temperaturesto minimum levels after cleaning each room. Closing drapes when a room is unoccupiedwill reduce heat gain in the summer and heat loss in the winter.nFront desk. Teach registration staff that they can help save energy costs by booking roomsin clusters, so that only occupied building areas or wings need to be heated or cooled toguest comfort levels. Rooms on top floors, at building corners, and facing west (in summer) or north (in winter) can be the most energy-intensive to heat or cool; therefore,consider renting them last.ENERGY STAR Building ManualCASE STUDY: Retrocommissioning a Marriott6The Los Angeles Airport Marriott, a 1,000-room facility, conducted a retrocommissioning program at a cost of about 22 cents per square foot, or roughly 125 per room. Theproject was conducted by a team of the company’s own staff, including engineers and theregional vice president of engineering, with assistance as needed from an outside consultant. The project developed in-house expertise that will help maintain long-term benefits,which is a result that might not have been achieved if outside consultants had workedindependently on the project. The project team developed 17 recommended measuresfor the hotel’s air-handling units, chilled water plant, and other back-of-the-house systems.The average implementation cost for each of the 17 steps was slightly more than 7,500,and the average payback period was less than one year. The hotel saved 153,000 annually, and 30 percent of those savings came from a single adjustment to airflow from oneair-handling unit.
Training can cover topics such as equipment warranties and maintenance, operational schedules and setpoints, start-up and shutdown, emergency procedures, and an overview of air quality and comfort issues. Instruction can be provided at meetings, in special training sessions, orin printed manuals and videos of training sessions.Integration with facility planning. Hotel owners who establish multiyear maintenanceplans are more likely to fund maintenance needs continuously. A multiyear plan can be usedfor prioritizing projects (depending on the funding available) while keeping the longer-termimpact of those decisions in perspective. This type of plan can be structured around the resultsof a complete retrocommissioning of select facilities as well as an assessment of the conditionof all hotels in the chain. A typical facility condition assessment includes reviewing the age andcondition of building components and then estimating their remaining expected lifetime andreplacement costs. A number of resources are available to help hotels and motels assess theircurrent operations and begin their investigation of energy-saving alternatives (see sidebar).12. Facility Type: Hotels and MotelsTraining and documentation. The benefits of retrocommissioning can be sustainedthrough proper training of hotel maintenance staff. A retrocommissioning contract shouldalways specify that maintenance staff will receive initial training and manuals. Multiple copiesof manuals that document system warranties, instructions for operations, and maintenancerequirements should be kept on-site and at corporate headquarters.RESOURCES: RetrocommissioningThe following resources are available to help hotel and motel owners and managers assesshow effectively they use energy and to help them investigate efficient alternatives:American Hotel & Lodging Associationwww.ahla.comThe American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) provides information on governmental and regulatory affairs, industry suppliers, media and public relations, and industry profileinformation. It has partnered with ENERGY STAR to launch an educational program calledGood Earthkeeping, which helps hoteliers improve the energy and financial performance oftheir properties and demonstrate the environmental leadership of the hospitality industry.ENERGY STAR Hospitality Benchmarking Starter Kitwww.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c hospitality.bus hospitality bm starter kitGreen be/Green Globe is a worldwide certification program for sustainable travel and tourism.“Green” Hotels Associationwww.greenhotels.comThe “Green” Hotels Association is committed to encouraging, promoting, and supportingecological consciousness in the hospitality industry.ENERGY STAR Building ManualHotels can assess energy performance with Portfolio Manager. This kit is intended to helpusers get started benchmarking, take the next steps, and assist in data collection.continued on page 87
12. Facility Type: Hotels and Motelscontinued from page 7Green Restaurant Associationwww.dinegreen.comThe Green Restaurant Association, a national nonprofit organization, provides services inresearch, consulting, education, marketing, and community organizing on energy-relatedissues to hotel and motel operators and owners.Green Sealwww.greenseal.orgGreen Seal is dedicated to protecting the environment by promoting the purchase and useof environmentally responsible consumer products. It sets environmental standards andawards a “Green Seal of Approval” to products that cause less harm to the environmentthan other similar products.International Association of Assembly Managers Inc.www.iaam.orgThe International Association of Assembly Managers is made up of members who manageor provide products and services to convention centers.International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional id 1The International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education was founded asa nonprofit association for schools, colleges, and universities that offer programs in hoteland restaurant management, food-service management, and culinary arts.Portland Energy Conservation Inc.www.peci.orgPortland Energy Conservation Inc. provides commissioning guidelines and services and promotes energy-efficient practices and technologies for businesses and indi