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PRESSURE PIPINGTHICKNESS AND FLANGERATING CALCULATIONThis case study demonstrates the use of a script and a Generic 4D chart toenable Flownex to calculate standards-compliant wall thicknesses and flangeratings of piping used in high pressure flow applications.OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

OIL AND GAS INDUSTRYChallenge:The main challenge for this case study is the application of Flownex to: Conveniently and easily check if the selected pipe wall thickness is adequate to safely contain thehigh pressure fluid by implementing ASME B31.3, AS 1210 and AS 4041 in a simple script.Determine the required ASME B16.5 flange rating by implementing the calculation in the samescript.Use the Generic 4D chart facility to implement a simple library for the pipe and flange materialtensile strength, working pressure-temperature ratings and other coefficients required by thecalculations.Benefits:Flownex is often used in a design environment to model high pressure flow systems with the aim ofdetermining pressure losses, pipe velocities, heat transfer etc. However, in high pressure applicationsit is also necessary to design the pressure piping and associated connected flanges to safely containthe high pressure fluid. Since almost every country has its own pressure vessel and pressure pipingstandards, Flownex does not offer this capability as part of a built-in component or script, but it isquite simple to implement using a script that may be connected to any Flownex pipe componentvia a data transfer link (DTL).Solution:Page1Using a simple script in any Flownex model, pressure piping and flanges can be easily checked forcompliance with any international standard.“Using a simple script and Generic 4D chart combination, the designcapability of Flownex has been extended to include pressure piping wallthickness and flange rating. This enables the process engineer to accountfor various pipe wall thickness requirements during the thermo-fluiddesign phase and well before piping engineers are required to verify thestructural properties of the piping system. This may potentially reducethe amount of rework as it will be less likely that the wrong pipe scheduleand flange ratings are used during the process design phase anddevelopment of initial datasheets and Piping and InstrumentationDiagrams (P&IDs).”Hannes van der WaltPrincipal co Pty Ltd

PRESSURE PIPING THICKNESSAND FLANGE RATING CALCULATIONIntroductionIn the oil and gas industry high pressure applications are mostly thenorm rather than the exception. Process engineers may employFlownex to model liquid or gas piping systems as part of their heatand mass balance, and pipe sizing calculations. However, theprocess engineer often has to rely on others to determine therequired pipe schedules (wall thickness) and flange ratings.Flownex has a very powerful facility in terms of its scriptingcapability. Combined with the Generic 4D chart library, all the toolsrequired are available to implement pressure piping calculationsaccording to any design standard. In fact, any data table orientedcalculation procedure may be implemented using this approach.This case study demonstrates the implementation of three suchinternational standards – ASME B31.3, AS 1210 and AS 4041 – in asimple script. It also further demonstrates how to use the Generic4D charts as a material property library to be used by the script.“Flownex has a verypowerful facility in terms ofits scripting capability.Combined with the Generic4D chart library, all the toolsrequired are available toimplement pressure pipingcalculations according toany design standard. In fact,any data table orientedcalculation procedure maybe implemented using thisapproach.”Flownex ModelFigure 1 shows the example network with a high pressure fluid flowing through the pressure pipe.The script obtains the pipe inside diameter and wall thickness as well as the operating (working)pressure and temperature from the pipe via the data transfer link (DTL). In the case demonstrated,the design pressure and temperature are entered directly into the script since the design valuesare often not the same as the working pressure and temperature. Typical values are shown in theinputs.Page2Corrosion allowances typically range from 1.5mm to 3mm and are often specified separately forthe pipe inside and outside surfaces. Manufacturing under-tolerances are often assumed 12.5% forgood quality piping. For seamless piping the weld quality factor (joint efficiency) may be taken as1.0. The weld joint reduction factor may be taken as 1.0 for cases where the temperature is lessthan 500 C. The example shows that the actual pipe wall thickness is approximately 25% morethan the required thickness. An ASME B16.5 Class 900 flange is required for this design pressureand temperature and. The flange maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 11988 kPa-gwhich is higher than the design pressure.www.flown[email protected]

Figure 1: Example Flownex Pressure Pipe Network with ScriptPage3The inputs and results displayed on the canvas in Figure 1 can also be added directly via the script’sproperty page. In fact, the Tensile Strength Chart and the Design Standard Option has to be selectedvia the script property page as the Flownex canvas representations of dropdown options cannot bechanged.Figure 2 shows the script inputs and outputs. The user has to select the material library and thedesign standard from dropdown menus. Furthermore, the design pressure (in gauge pressure),design temperature and corrosion allowance must be specified. The DTL will import the pipe [email protected]

diameter and wall thickness as well as the operating pressure and temperature. The remainingfactors will likely remain as given.Figure 2: Pressure Piping and Flange Rating Calculation Script Inputs and ResultsCalculations According to Piping StandardsASME B31.3 (2014)ASME B31.3 is a widely used US Standard for pressure piping. The required pressure piping wallthickness may be calculated according to ASME B31.3-2014 section 304.1.2 as follows:t PD2( SEW PY )Page4where:t the pressure design thickness for internal pressureP internal design pressure (gauge)D outside diameter of the pipeS stress value of material (pipe design tensile strength)E weld quality factor (weld efficiency)W weld joint strength reduction factorY coefficient from Table 304.1.1, valid for t D/[email protected](1)

AS 1210 (2010) & AS 4041 (2006)AS 1210 is an Australian and New Zealand Standard for pressure vessels and AS 4041 is thepressure piping equivalent. Both standards are heavily based on ASME B31.3 although AS 1210 ismore conservative due to its nature as a pressure vessel standard. Since they are based onASME B31.3, the calculations are quite similar and although the AS standards use slightly differentsymbols, this case study will reuse the ASME symbols in the AS section and only add additionalsymbols as needed.In accordance with AS 4041:t PD2SEMW P(2)where:M the class design factor (taken as 1.0 for Class 1 and 2 piping)In accordance with AS 1210:t PD2SE P(3)Mechanical Allowances – All StandardsThe above expressions provide the required wall thickness to contain the design pressure. Noother mechanical allowances have been made. The mechanical allowances most frequently beingused are those for corrosion, erosion, thread or groove and under-tolerance. In this example onlycorrosion and under-tolerance are considered. The required thickness of straight sections of pipemay then be determined as follows:tm t c(4)where:c sum of all mechanical allowancesHence for the allowances considered, the following relationship is used:tm (t ca) (1 ut )(5)where:ca the corrosion allowanceut the under-tolerance as a fraction (typically 0.125 or 12.5%)ASME B16.5 (2009) Flange RatingsPage5Flange ratings for a particular application are selected according to the working pressuretemperature ratings for the specific material as given in the tables in ASME B16.5-2009. ASMEflange classes are Classes 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500 and [email protected]

Implementing a Material Strength Library By Using a Generic 4D ChartEach of the standards considered provides tables of the pipe material design tensile strength as afunction of design temperature. The tensile strengths given for ASME B31.3 and AS 4041 aresimilar since they are both pressure piping standards whilst the tensile strengths given for AS 1210are somewhat lower owing to its more conservative approach as a pressure vessel standard. Allthese tables of design tensile strengths are implemented in a Generic 4D chart.Pipe wall thickness calculations according to ASME B31.3 also uses a Y-coefficient given in Table304.1.1 of the standard which is valid for cases where t D/6. These factors will also beimplemented in the same Generic 4D chart.The ASME B16.5 flange rating is done by implementing the flange material pressure-temperatureratings in a table in the same Generic 4D chart.For this case study, the piping and forgings (flanges) material pairs implemented in the Generic 4Dcharts are: ASTM A106 Grade B with ASTM A105ASTM A312 TP304 with ASTM A182 Gr.F304ASTM A312 TP316 with ASTM A182 Gr.F316ASTM A790-S31803 with ASTM A182 Gr.F51To implement other materials would simply require a duplicate Generic 4D chart with the correctdesign tensile strengths, coefficients and pressure-temperature ratings for the new materials.Figure 3: Piping and Flange Material Strength LibraryPage6The pipe and flange material strength library is provided to the script via a Generic 4D chart asshown in Figure 3. The user should add similar charts for all the piping and flange materials used.The material library could have been implemented several different ways using Generic 4D charts.For simplicity and conciseness it was decided to implement all the data for a specific pipingmaterial and flange material pair required by the script in a single [email protected]

Figure 4: Piping Design Tensile Strength Table for ASME B31.3 Calculations for ASTM A106 Gr BMaterialAs shown in Figure 4, the Generic 4D charts provide for 4 variables to be plotted against eachother. The implementation of the material strengths and other factors do not actually require a 4Dchart, however it will be shown that having 4 variables available made this implementation simple.Variable 1 is used to store the different datasets as will be demonstrated in the followingdiscussions.Under Variable 1, Variable 2 has three (3) entries - each of which implements the temperaturetensile strength tables using Variable 3 and Variable 4 respectively for the three standardsimplemented. Note that the temperature (Variable 3) is in Kelvin and the basic allowable stress (ortensile strength) (Variable 4) is in MPa. The ASME B31.3 table is selected in Variable 2 and istherefore shown in red in the graph and clearly falls between AS 4041 and AS 1210 as discussedbefore.Page7Figure 5: ASME B31.3 Y-Coefficient from Table 304.1.1The second entry in Variable 1 (Figure 5) is used to store the ASME B31.3 Y-coefficient from Table304.1.1 of that standard. Variable 3 lists the temperature (in Kelvin) whilst Variable 4 lists the Ycoefficient (dimensionless)[email protected]

Figure 6: ASME B16.5 Pressure-Temperature Ratings for ASTM A105 FlangesThe third entry in Variable 1 (Figure 6) is used to store the ASME B16.5 flange pressuretemperature rating data. It is shown that Variable 2 is used to store each flange class with Class150 shown as selected and displayed in red in the graph. Variables 3 and 4 store the temperaturevs. working pressure respectively for each instance of Variable 2. Note that the temperature(Variable 3) is in Kelvin and the working pressure (Variable 4) is in bar-g (bar-gauge).A facility where each of the 4 variables can be assigned a label to assist with the clarity of a chart isyet to be added to Flownex .Warning ReportingThe script has been updated to implement three basic warnings as shown below. The first warninginforms the user that the Pipe Design Strength Margin as shown in Figure 2 is negative, i.e. there isno margin available. The second warning informs the user that the operating pressure (actualpressure in the pipe) is higher than the specified design pressure. Similarly, the third warningsuggests that the operating temperature exceeds the design temperature.Page8Figure 7: Warnings Generated by the [email protected]

SummaryUsing a simple script and Generic 4D chart combination, the design capability of Flownex hasbeen extended to include pressure piping wall thickness and flange rating. This enables theprocess engineer to account for various pipe wall thickness requirements during the thermo-fluiddesign phase and well before piping engineers are required to verify the structural properties ofthe piping system. This may potentially reduce the amount of rework as it will be less likely that thewrong pipe schedule and flange ratings are used during the process design phase anddevelopment of initial datasheets and Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs).Case Study Flownex Model AvailabilityThe Flownex model discussed in this case study is available in the user project downloads areaavailable from:http://www.flownex.com/projectlibraryThe model demonstrates various simple scripting techniques such as:the implementation of dropdown menus;hiding and showing variables in the property page depending on selected options;accessing the Generic 4D chart libraries andreporting of warnings.Page9 [email protected]