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Unit 2: The Engineering Design ProcessLesson 1: The Engineering Design ProcessLesson SnapshotBig Idea: The Engineering Design process is a systematic, iterative problem solvingmethod which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires.Teacher’s Note: Big ideas should be made explicit to students by writing them on theboard and/or reading them aloud. For deeper understanding, have students write the BigIdea in their own Engineering Design Journal (EDJ), using their own words if they choose.Purpose of Lesson: Unit 2, Lesson 1 introduces students to the engineering design processand requires that they apply it.Lesson Duration: Eight (8) hours.Activity HighlightsEngagement: Students will watch a view entitled, “How I Harnessed the Wind,” fromwww.ted.com. Students will record notes on the process used in the video to harness thewind. The teacher will lead a discussion on the process that was used by WilliamKamkwamba to harness the wind.Exploration: Given the steps of the engineering design process on note cards (one step percard) (File 2.1.1 or File 2.1.2), students will attempt to place the steps in the correct order.Students will use prior knowledge and the sequence demonstrated in the engagementexample to determine the order. The teacher will give feedback and prompt students tojustify their order.Explanation: The teacher presents the students with the correct sequence and delivers apresentation on the Engineering Design Process (Presentation 2.1.1). Students will recordnotes in their engineering design journals (EDJ). A graphic organizer can be used to helpstudents transition to the expanded Engineering Design Process (File 2.1.3). The teacherwill deliver a presentation on the Pythagorean Theorem (Presentation 2.1.2), and use thePythagorean Theorem Review (File 2.1.4) to work with students. Additional instructionalresources are available in (Video 2.1.3).Extension: Students will apply the steps of the engineering design process to a simpledesign problem (File 2.1.5). Students will document the Engineering Design process in theirEDJ. Student will apply mathematical concepts related to the design challenge (File 2.1.5and File 2.1.6).Teacher Note: The data collected during the testing/evaluation of the design challenge willbe used in Unit 2, Lesson 2. The teacher should make sure all data is recorded.Evaluation: Student knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using selected responseitems, brief constructed response items, and performance rubrics for class participation,discussion, and design briefs. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

Unit 2: The Engineering Design ProcessLesson 1: The Engineering Design ProcessLesson OverviewLesson DurationEight (8) hours.Standards/BenchmarksTechnology: Standards for Technological Literacy (STL) (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007)STL 8HUnderstanding the attributes of designThe design process includes defining a problem, brainstorming, researching andgenerating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploringpossibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making amodel or prototype, testing and evaluating the design using specifications,refining the design, creating or making it, and communicating processes andresults.Mathematics: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000)2Algebra StandardRepresent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships (NCTM5L)Geometry StandardUse visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives andanalyze their cross sections; (NCTM-11X)Learning ObjectivesStudents will learn to:1. Apply the steps of the design process including defining a problem, brainstorming,researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints,exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, makinga model or prototype, testing, and communicating results.2. Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships Contributeto a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, andfocusing on the task.3. Visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives andanalyze their cross sections.4. Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts ofothers, and focusing on the task.5. Work safely and accurately with a variety of tools, machines, and materials.6. Actively participate in group discussions, ideation exercises, and debates. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

Resource MaterialsAudiovisual MaterialsTeacher Domain. (n.d.). What is the design process? Retrieved ci.engin.design.desprocess/NASASciFiles. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved fromhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v 6PJTlzY0AakDesign Squad. (n.d.). Paper table challenge (2:15). Retrieved lHow I Harnessed the Wind. (2012). How I Harnessed the Wind. Retrieved from:www.ted.comInternet Search Terms and Suggested Sites Engineering design processTeachenginering. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved ess.phpNASA. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved tgrowth/reference/Eng Design 5-12.htmlRequired Knowledge and/or SkillsStudents should be able to search for information on the Internet and know how to useword-processing and presentation software. Students should know how to safely use hotglue guns and basic prototyping materials and equipment (rulers, knives, etc.).Student Assessment Tools and/or MethodsAssessment Instrument - Quiz(Pre-/Post-Content Knowledge Questions).1. The Scientific Method is a/an:a. undefined linear procedureb. defined circular procedurec. undefined circular procedured. defined linear procedure2. The Engineering Design Process follows:a. a defined circular pathb. a defined linear pathc. an undefined circular pathd. an undefined linear path3. Ina.b.c.d.science, you form a hypothesis; in engineering, you:identify criteriadefine a problembrainstormbuild a prototype4. Ina.b.c.d.science, you report your results; in engineering, you:communicate resultsdefine a problembrainstormbuild a prototype 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

5. A systematic application of mathematical, scientific and technical principles is:a. sociological designb. scientific designc. engineering designd. psychological design6. Bya.b.c.d.defining the problem, the designer clearly identifies what humans:like or wantlike and wantlike and don’t likeneed or want7. The process of checking to see if a solution to a problem already exists is called:a. researchb. brainstormingc. testingd. optimizing8. A prototype is a model that:a. looks exactly as the final solution would but does not functionb. performs exactly as the final solution wouldc. does not meet the stated criteriad. does not meet the stated constraints9. Design portfolios, design journals, drawings and schematics are all used to:a. evaluateb. communicatec. testd. optimizeAssessment Instrument - Brief Constructed Response (BCR)Students are expected to respond to one of the questions described below. Students shouldprovide examples to clarify their response.1. Compare and contrast the Scientific Method to the Engineering Design Process.2. Briefly review the steps of the Engineering Design Process and how the process itselfis iterative.BCR RubricCategoryUnderstandingFocusBelow AverageResponsedemonstrates animplied, partial, orsuperficial understanding of thequestion.AverageResponse is writtentechnically andprecisely. Theanswerdemonstratesunderstanding of thetopic.Response lackstransitionalResponse addressesthe question,ExcellentResponse is writtentechnically andprecisely. Theanswerdemonstratesunderstanding of thetopic and sitesspecific examples.Response addressesthe question, sites 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

Use of RelatedInformationinformation to showthe relationshipbetween the contentand the support tothe question.includes pertinentinformation andremains focused onthe topic.Response usesminimal supportinginformation to clarifyor extend meaning.Response usesexpressed and/orimplied supportinginformation thatclarifies or extendsmeaning.specific examples,includes pertinentinformation andremains focused onthe topic. Detailsare clearly statedand do not detractfrom the response.Response uses clearand conciseexamples as well assupportinginformation thatclarifies or extendsmeaning. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

Unit 2: The Engineering Design ProcessLesson 1: The Engineering Design Process5-E Lesson PlanEngagementThe teacher will show students the video: “How I Harnessed the Wind” found athttp://www.ted.com/. The teacher will ask the students to record what steps WilliamKamkwamba used to solve a problem. Students may refer to the 5-step design process asan organizational tool (EbD Engineering Design Process). The class will discuss how theproblem was solved using the design process. The teacher will explain that as we face morecomplex problems, we need to follow a more detailed design process.Teacher Note: It is recommended that the teacher downloads the video prior to teachingthe lesson. If this video is not available, choose another design challenge clip. Theemphasis is on students watching engineers and/or students working on a design challengeso that they can reflect on the process. Regardless of the video, the teacher should provideguidance when sequencing the steps in the Engineering Design Process.ExplorationOption #1: Students research the Engineering Design Process and place the steps in theproper order (File 2.1.1). The teacher will circulate around the room and provide feedbackto students as needed. The teacher should prompt students to justify the placement of aparticular step.Option #2: The teacher supplies the students with a set of index cards with each step of thedesign process written on one card (total of 12 cards in each set – File 2.1.2). Students,working in groups of two, will attempt to correctly sequence the steps in the engineeringdesign process. The teacher will circulate around the room and provide feedback to studentsas needed. The teacher should prompt students to justify the placement of a particularstep.ExplanationThe student takes notes in their EDJs on the content delivered by the teacher and activelyparticipates throughout the presentation.The teacher, involving students in the following discussions as they contribute theirexperiences from the Engagement and Exploration activities along with any prior knowledgethey may have about the subject, will deliver a presentation on the Engineering Designprocess as a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meethuman wants and desires (Presentation 2.1.1): The teacher may present or ask students to present the correct sequence of theEngineering Design Process, while other students self check their index cards.Defines Science as the study of the natural world and how the natural world works,based on observable physical evidence.Defines Technology as the application of knowledge to solve practical problems or tochange/manipulate the human environment.Explains that the Scientific Method is the process of discovery and demonstration, whichgenerally involves the observation of phenomena, the formulation of a hypothesisconcerning the phenomena, experimentation to demonstrate the truth or falseness ofthe hypothesis, and a conclusion that validates or modifies the hypothesis. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

Explains what Engineering Design is a systematic, iterative problem solvingmethod which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires. Further it,systematically applies mathematical, scientific and technical principles, to yield tangibleend products that meet our needs and desires. The process of engineering design takesinto account a number of factors. Explains that as problems become more complex, sodo the processes used to solve them.Reminds students that each step in the Engineering Design Process should be recordedin their Engineering Design Journal.Explains the steps of the Engineering Design Processa. Defining the Problemb. Brainstorm Solutionsc. Research Ideas/Explore Possibilitiesd. Specify Constraints and Identifying Criteriae. Consider Alternative Solutionsf. Selecting an Approachg. Developing a Written Design Proposalh. Making a Model/Prototypei. Testing and Evaluatingj. Refine/Improvek. Create/Make Productl. Communicate the ResultsAt the conclusion of the Explanation, the teacher will share the expanded design processgraphic organizer (File 2.1.3). This information graphically showcases the transition to theexpanded engineering design process. Have students copy or paste this information in theirEDJ.The teacher will deliver a presentation on the Pythagorean Theorem (Presentation 2.1.2).Students will record notes and answer practice problems in their EDJ. The teacher will havestudents complete the Crane Strain - Pythagorean Theorem Review (File 2.1.4) in class orfor homework. The teacher can use the video based instruction/support entitledPythagorean Theorem Video (Video 2.1.3).ExtensionThe teacher will present the crane strain design brief (File 2.1.5). Students, working insmall groups, will design and build a crane that supports the greatest weight. Students willapply the steps of the Engineering Design Process to solve the problem. Students can usethe Design folio to work through the Engineering Design Process or use the folio as agraphic organizer to frame their work in their EDJ. All notes should be recorded in thestudent’s EDJ or on the design folio.Prior to constructing the crane, students should be able to calculate the amount of materialsthey need to construct their design. The amount should be within the allowable constraints.The students will collect data during testing. The data and their efficiency calculationsshould be recorded in their EDJ or on the crane strain efficiency worksheet (File 2.1.6).Teacher Note: To ensure that students have the necessary data in Unit 2, lesson 2, it issuggested that the teacher collect (File 2.1.6) immediately after testing, or uses an onlineshared spreadsheet (e.g., Google Doc) for students to record data.Evaluation 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

Student knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using the multiple choice or briefconstructed response items and performance rubrics for class participation, discussion, anddesign briefs. The rubrics are presented in advance of the activities to familiarizestudents with the expectations and performance criteria. They are also reviewedduring the activities to guide students in the completion of assignments. Theteacher may wish to develop a collection of annotated exemplars of student work based onthe rubrics. The exemplars will serve as benchmarks for future assessments and may beused to familiarize students with the criteria for assessment. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

Unit 2: The Engineering Design ProcessLesson 1: The Engineering Design ProcessLaboratory-Classroom PreparationTeacher PlanningReview the materials to determine the appropriate times to allocate to the viewing orreading of the materials. Instructors should ensure that the students have access to theappropriate Internet resources, particularly if print-based materials are not available forstudents to read. Prepare the room for multimedia presentations, including showing DVDs.It may be advantageous to read several reviews of the resources used to gain additionalperspectives on the authors’ messages. In addition, instructors should collaborate with theEnglish language arts, social studies, and literature instructors to integrate these literaryresources into this course.The laboratory should provide for a flexible, resource-rich learning environment thatallows presentations, demonstrations, small-group discussions, design work, computerwork, research, prototyping, and testing. The room should include individual work areasas well as areas for small groups to meet and work. Students should have access toresearch resources including the library and the Internet. The room should be set up formultimedia presentations including digital projectors, document cameras, sound systems,and DVD and videotape players. Computers in the classroom should be Internet-readyand have word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software. Although not required,CAD software for design work is recommended.Tools/Materials/EquipmentBelow is a list of supplies and equipment that are needed to teach this course, assuming aclass of 25 students. Optional/additional supplies required for Enrichment Activities areindicated. Where possible and appropriate, merchants are listed that support ITEEA;however, materials may often be obtained from alternative and/or local sources.Additionally, these materials are based upon the lessons in the course and make noassumptions for classrooms with access to specialized equipment (e.g., fabricationequipment). If the student has access to specialized equipment, the teacher maywish to incorporate the use of it into the lessons, and additional supplies may benecessary (as well as safety procedures). Computer w/Internet accessCrane Tower (teacher built)Supplies per teams of students Weights and weight holder Scrap wood 1/8” x1/4” x 24” Design Folios 7’ mason string 15 craft sticks One piece of wood (3” x 3” x ¼”) Hand & power tools typical to a Technology Education lab 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/Technology, Engineering, and Design

Laboratory-Classroom Safety and ConductNote: Safety is of paramount importance to every classroom. While this Guide containssome general safety guidelines, it does not address the specific tools, equipment, andworking spaces found in any specific classroom. Teachers must provide comprehensivesafety guidelines to students based upon individual classrooms.1. Students use tools and equipment safely, maintaining a safety level for themselvesand others in the laboratory-classroom.2. Students demonstrate respect and courtesy for the ideas expressed by others in theclass.3. Students show respect and appreciation for the efforts of others.Student Resources File 2.1.1 Engineering Design Process File 2.1.2 Engineering Design Process Note Cards File 2.1.3 Expanded Engineering Design Process Graphic Organizer File 2.1.4 Pythagorean Theorem Review File 2.1.5 Crane Strain Design Brief File 2.1.6 Crain Strain, Crane Efficiency CalculationsTeacher Resource Presentation 2.1.1 Engineering Design Process Presentation 2.1.2 Pythagorean Theorem Video 2.1.3 Pythagorean Theorem VideoVocabularyEngineering Design Process: is a systematic, iterative problem solving method whic