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EMS STEM ExploratoryLesson 2 – Intro to Engineering Design ProcessLesson FocusThis lesson introduces students to the engineering design process (EDP)—the process engineers use to solvedesign challenges. Students work in teams to solve the challenge by designing both a product and a process tocomplete the engineering challenge.Lesson SynopsisStudents learn about the engineering design process by doing an engineering design challenge called TowerChallenge where students need to work collaborative to design both a process and a product to build the tallestfree-standing structure out of given materials and time given.ObjectivesDuring this lesson, students will: Apply the engineering design process to solve a design challenge. Build, test, and redesign a prototype. Employ teamwork and communication to successfully solve the challenge.Anticipated Learner OutcomesAs a result of this activity, students will have: Applied the engineering design process to solve a design challenge Build, test, and redesign a prototype. Employ teamwork and communication to successfully solve the challenge.Lesson ActivitiesTeams of students use the engineering design process to solve the Toxic Popcorn Challenge. The lesson closeswith students sharing all they learned and discussing the answers to the many questions they had at thebeginning of the lesson.Resources / Materials Teacher Resource Documents (attached) Student Worksheets (attached) Student Resource Sheets (attached)Alignment to Curriculum FrameworksSee attached curriculum alignment sheet.Lesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher

EMS STEM ExploratoryLesson 2 – Intro to Engineering Design ProcessFor Teachers: Teacher ResourcesLesson Goal:The goal of this lesson is that teams of students use the engineering design process to solve the TowerChallenge. Students must work collaborative to design both a process and a product to build the tallest freestanding structure out of given materials and time given.Lesson Objectives:During this lesson, students will: Applied the engineering design process to solve a design challenge Build, test, and redesign a prototype. Employ teamwork and communication to successfully solve the challenge.Materials:One full set of material for each team 20 sticks of spaghetti 1 piece plain computer paper 2 paper clips 2 feet of string 5 toothpicks 1 yard of tape 1 large marshmallow EDP worksheet (per student/group)Grade Level Modifications For ages 9 and younger you might consider limiting the materials, (reducing the materials by taking oneor two things away completely). For ages 14 and older add additional, random materials to make the group think creatively together.Reduce a specific material.Time Needed: One - Two, 60 minute sessions The lesson can be done in as little as 1 class period for older students. However, the class discussion andfollow-up lesson may spill over to the next day.Lesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher

EMS STEM ExploratoryLesson 2 – Intro to Engineering Design ProcessFor Teachers (continued):Challenge:Build the tallest free-standing structure in 20 minutes, using no more than the materials given. The marshmallow MUSTbe on top and cannot be deformed to hold in place. The structure has to stand firmly on its own; it cannot be propped up,held, or suspended from the ceiling.Teacher Prep:Before the lesson, create “Tower Challenge” kits. Kits should contain all materials necessary for the challenge. Placingthe kits in paper lunch bags will add and element of “surprise” to the challenge, as students do not know what they have tobuild the tower with until they get their bag.Also, you will need the following to run the challenge successfully: Measuring tape: I suggest a measuring tape vs. a meter/yard stick. It will be easier to quickly measure theheight of the delicate structures! Stopwatch: Use a projector if you can so students can see the time as they work. There are several onlinestopwatch sites that are great. I use: tch/ Music: Students work well with music in the background. Music also serves as a volume control for students;setting the volume of the music, students understand their volume cannot go above a certain level to where themusic cannot be heard. Additionally, for the challenge, a playlist can be created, allowing the music to get moreintense as the time ticks down to zero!Procedure:1. Divide students into teams of 3-4 students.2. Go through the RULES. You will want to go through the rules several times. Having students “repeat” backinstructions and/or rules is a strategy to go over the rules again without you having to repeat them yourselvesagain. [After you go over a rule, then call on a random student to repeat back what the rule was in their ownwords] Also, posting the rules on the lab tables or on the screen for reference will be helpful and reinforce themfor students throughout the challenge. The RULESBuild the tallest free-standing structure. The winning team is the one that has the tallest structuremeasured from the tabletop surface to the top of the marshmallow. That means the structure cannot besuspended from a higher structure, like a chair, ceiling, or chandelier.The entire marshmallow must be on top. The entire marshmallow needs to be on the top of thestructure. Cutting or eating part of the marshmallow disqualifies the team.Use as much or as little of the kit. Team can use as many or as few of the 20 spaghetti sticks, asmuch or as little of the string or tape. The team cannot use the paper bag as part of its structure.Break up the spaghetti, string or tape. Teams are free to break the spaghetti and to cut up the tapeand string to create new structures.The Challenge lasts 20 minutes. Teams cannot hold on to the structure when the time runs out.Those touching or supporting the structure at the end of the exercise will be disqualified. Teamscannot touch other team’s structures or tables, disturbing their structure or the team will bedisqualified.Lesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher

EMS STEM Exploratory3.Pass out the Challenge Kits & Start the Challenge. Start the countdown clock and music with the start of the challenge. Walk around the Room: Encourage teams, but do not help! Watch the teams create their structuresand develop their process for using the different materials. Enjoy the innovation of each team andthe patterns that emerge. Remind Teams of the Time: Count down the time. Typically, the leader calls the time at12 minutes,9 minutes (half-way through), 7 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, 2 minutes, 1 minute, 30 seconds anda ten-second countdown. Call Out How Teams Are Doing: Let the entire class know how teams are progressing. Call outeach time a team builds a standing structure. Build a friendly rivalry. Encourage people to lookaround. Don’t be afraid to raise the energy and the stakes. Remind Teams that holding their Structures will disqualify them: Several teams will have apowerful desire to hold onto their structure at the end — usually because the marshmallow, justinstalled at the apex, is causing it to buckle. The winning structure must be stable.4. Finish the ChallengeWhen the time runs out, ask everyone to sit down or move/stand at the edge of room. (Half or more of yourteams should have free-standing structures). Measure the structures. Measure from the shortest standing structure to the tallest and call out theheights. Have someone record the heights. Identify the winning team. Ensure they get a standing ovation and a prize (if you’ve offered one). Wrap up the Tower Challenge lesson. Have each team reflect on the following:o What building techniques make the tower stronger?o Does the placing of the marshmallows affect the strength of the tower?o Could you build a stronger tower with more of the same materials? What alternativematerials would be better?o Does the size of the base alter the strength of the tower?o How do you think you worked as a group? Did you assume different roles? Did all groupswork in the same way?5. Follow up Lesson. This challenge is an introduction to the engineering design process (EDP). It allowsstudents to have a problem, design prototypes, and present their solutions, while not formally following eachstep of the EDP. The challenge is structured to allow students to naturally work without too muchinterference; setting up the students up for a great class discussion of their challenge and the EDP! Distribute Engineering Design Process sheet to each student. Copy the process on oneside and the student EDP worksheet on the other. Review the EDP with students. Using the Tower Challenge, review the EDP. Havestudents complete the sections they know/understand first. (Identify the Problem, Construct aPrototype). Complete the EDP worksheet. Working as a class, review each part of the EDP, using theTower Challenge as a reference to complete the worksheet. Students may not have knownthey completed each part of the EDP, but discuss as a class and talk about each step and howit was completed or could have been completed in this challenge.Lesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher

EMS STEM ExploratoryLesson 2 – Intro to Engineering Design ProcessFor Teachers (continued):Alignment to Curriculum FrameworksNext Generation Science Standards Grades 6-8 (Ages 11-14)Engineering DesignStudents who demonstrate understanding can: MS-ETS1-1 Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision toensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potentialimpacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. MS-ETS1-2 Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine howwell they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.National Science Education Standards Grades 5-8 (ages 10 - 14)CONTENT STANDARD E: Science and TechnologyAs a result of activities, all students should Communicate the process of technological design. Students should review and describe anycompleted piece of work and identify the stages of problem identification, solution design,implementation, and evaluation. Evaluate completed technological designs or products. Technological designs have constraints.Standards for Technological Literacy - All AgesDesign Standard 10: Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research anddevelopment, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.Lesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher

EMS STEM ExploratoryLesson 2 - Intro to Engineering Design ProcessStudent Resource: What is the Engineering Design Process?In order to understand the Engineering Design Process you first need to understand technology and engineering.Technology is all around us. It is any product (an object created by a person) or process (a series of steps thatbrings about a result) that is designed by people to solve a problem. Most of the things you are in contact witheach day are technology. For example: paperclip, cup, glasses, stapler, bottle, and pencil etc. What technologydo you use every day?Engineering is the application of science and mathematics to design or redesign technology to solve problemsand meet needs. Where scientists study the natural world, engineers design the human-made world. Engineersdesign everything from sandwich bags to submarines, robots to roller coasters and air bags to artificial hearts!Can you name more technology that engineers have designed? Check out the Greatest EngineeringAchievements of the 20th Century: (www.greatachievements.org) and see how engineers have made the world abetter place. Engineering is a profession with a vast number of disciplines. For example: mechanicalengineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, biomedical engineering, systems engineering, oceanengineering, materials engineering, etc. Can you name more disciplines? To learn more about engineering andthe different disciplines, visit www.tryengineering.org.Engineering Design ProcessAll engineers have one thing in common and that is the process they use to solve problems -- it is called theengineering design process. The engineering design process is to engineering what the scientific method is toscience.Lesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher

EMS STEM ExploratoryLesson 2 – Intro to Engineering Design ProcessStudent Resource:The Engineering Design ProcessLesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher

EMS STEM ExploratoryStudent Resource:The Engineering Design ProcessEngineering Design ProcessIdentify the Problem What is the problem you want to solve? Write a problem statement. Your problem statement must answer these 3 questions:What is the problem or need? Who has the problem or need? Why is it important tosolve? The format for writing a problem statement uses your answers to the questions andfollows these guidelines:WHO need(s) WHAT because WHY.Ex. need(s) because .Research the Problem What do you know about the problem? Find out as much about the problem as you can. What are the criteria (conditions that the design must satisfy, overall size, weight, etc.)of the problem? What are the constraints (limitations with material, time, size of the team, etc.) of theproblem?Construct Prototype Using the material given, build a prototype (a working model) of your design. Don’t forget about the criteria (conditions that the design must satisfy) and constraints(limitations that need to be designed around)Test & Evaluate Solution Test and evaluate your design. Did you satisfy the criteria and constraints? Record data of your tests. Analyze data to determine if your design solved the problem.Redesign Did your design solve the problem? Any changes/modifications that need to be made? If not, brainstorm a new design, build and test it until you have successfully solved theproblem.Communicate Communication is at the core of the engineering design process At each step in the process you must communicate with your team members. You need to also communicate with others outside of your team to get feedback onyour design. (Sometimes others see things you missed or just didn’t see!) You need to communicate verbally as well as by describing your design throughwriting and drawings. Share your final design and results with the community, your client, other engineers –if you don’t share, no one ever knows of the great work!Lesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher

EMS STEM ExploratoryStudent Resource:The Engineering Design ProcessEngineering Design ProcessIdentify the Problem - Write the problem state of the challengeResearch the Problem Know: Criteria: Constraints:Construct Prototype – Draw your prototype(s) hereTest & Evaluate Solution - Record test data hereRedesign Did your design solve the problem? Changes/modifications: New Ideas:Communicate How did you communicate through the challenge?Lesson created by Anne Lopez / Eastside Middle School STEM Teacher