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Name(s):Period:Date:HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01aBackground/IntroductionScience and EngineeringScience is the study of the natural world. The scientific method is a process used to studyscience. While the scientific method is often presented as a linear step-by-step process, it isactually much more complex requiring repeated re-evaluation and adjustments asexperiments are being performed. On the other hand, engineering is the creation of newthings, often based on the results of scientific experimentation. Engineers use a morecreative engineering design process. The flow charts below outline the process used inscience and fair-projects/project scientific s.shtmlAs seen above, scientists use the scientific method to produce testable explanations andtheories. They make observations, ask questions, hypothesize answers, and develop/performexperiments in an attempt to provide answers to the questions. Engineers use the designprocess to produce and test solutions to given problems. Scientists and engineers bothcontribute greatly to the medical field and healthcare, but in different ways.The Scientific Process and Diagnosis, HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01a33

Name(s):Period:Date:Science and Engineering in MedicineThe scientific process in healthcare is most obviously seen in medical diagnosis. The medicaldiagnosis is an example of science in action. A patient comes to a healthcare professionalwith a chief complaint, or health concern, which provides the question. The healthcareprofessional then analyzes the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and condition todetermine a diagnosis. The initial diagnosis is considered a hypothesis. To experiment anddetermine whether the initial diagnosis is correct, the healthcare professional may orderadditional diagnostic tests or start treatment based on the initial diagnosis. This is consideredthe experiment. The diagnostic test results, or the treatment results, are then analyzed toconfirm or negate the diagnosis. If the initial diagnosis was correct, treatment will be startedor continued. If it was incorrect, additional tests or a different treatment will be started. Thisprocess repeats until the correct diagnosis for the patient has been determined.Re-evaluateIf the diagnosis was notcorrect, performadditional tests or start anew treatmentQuestion What is thepatient'schiefcomplaint?Research Analyzepatientsymptoms,history, anddiagnostictestsHypothesis Orderadditionaltests, ordiagnosethe patientExperiment Performadditionalmedicaltests, orstarttreatmentAnalysis Analyze thetest results,ortreatmentsuccessEngineering principles and designs can be seen throughout the medical field. The specificbranch of engineering that works within the realm of medicine is called biomedicalengineering. Biomedical engineering can be used to produce diagnostic and therapeuticequipment, imaging equipment, tissue and cell lines, prosthetics, and pharmaceutical drugsas a few examples. Medical machines, such as the digital x-ray, surgical robots, and evendiabetes monitors are all the result of biomedical engineering. Entire careers can be built!around engineering new and existing products that improve healthcare.Worldwide Health Issues and ConstraintsWorldwide diseases, epidemics, and public health are a very real problem facing thehuman population. Evaluating a solution to a complex real-world problem, such as how tohandle epidemics, is based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that take into account arange of constraints. Such constraints include cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as wellas possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. As a result, these complex issues donot necessarily have a single solution.Worldwide disease control frequently encounters these constraints. An example is theprevalence of measles cases in the United States. The measles virus is an extremelycontagious disease that can be deadly. The measles vaccination was introduced largely inthe 1960s. Before that time, more than 3 million people were infected and an estimated 500deaths occurred yearly in the U.S. as a result of measles.34The Scientific Process and Diagnosis, HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01a

Name(s):Children are generally required to have themeasles vaccination before starting school,and as of the year 2000 measles wasconsidered eliminated in the United Statesdue to widespread vaccination. While themeasles virus is essentially eradicated in theU.S., it is still present abroad. Whenunvaccinated individuals travel abroad,they are at risk of a measles infection.The simple solution to prevent measlesepidemics in the U.S. was widespreadvaccination, which has proven to beeffective, but additional constraints arose.From 1989-1991, more than 55,000 measlescases were reported. This was attributed tothe lack of vaccination among uninsuredchildren; the cost of the vaccination was aconstraint. As a result, the U.S. governmentstepped in to provide vaccinations touninsured children in p 68051More recently, the safety and reliability of vaccinations have been questioned. Parents nowhave the opportunity to exempt their children from childhood vaccinations for social orcultural reasons. This has caused a rise in the number of measles cases. In the first 3 monthsof 2014, 129 cases of measles were already reported, while the national average per yearhas been less than 160 cases. As a result of these constraints, experts predict a continuedincrease in the number of measles cases over the next several years. This one exampleshows that there are many constraints that must be taken into account in attempting theprevention of future measles and other epidemics.Review Questions – answer questions on a separate sheet of paper1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.What is the difference between science and engineering?Compare and contrast the scientific process and the engineering process.Explain how the scientific process is used in a medical diagnosis (outline EACH step).In medicine, why do you think it is important that re-evaluation is part of the scientificprocess?A patient goes to the doctor complaining of chest pain and shortness of breath.Explain how a doctor would use the scientific process to diagnose the patient.How does engineering impact the medical field? Give at least 3 examples.Worldwide health issues are complex real-world problems. Why is there often not asingle solution to these problems?Explain why widespread vaccination for measles has not eradicated the disease.The Scientific Process and Diagnosis, HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01a35

Name(s):Period:Date:HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01aScenarioComplex real-world problems can be solved by breaking them down into smaller, moremanageable problems. When diagnosing a patient, is important to collect patientinformation, physical exam observations, medical history, and diagnostic tests to determinea diagnosis, and start treatment. In this activity, you will evaluate and diagnose five patientsbased on the information provided and diagnostic test results. It will be necessary to breakdown and evaluate the observations and results separately to develop a correct diagnosis.MaterialsGlucose test stripsElectrolytes test stripsFerritin test stripsBlood pH test stripsLiver Enzymes test stripsWhite Blood Cell test stripsPatient A samplePatient B samplePatient C samplePatient D samplePatient E sampleForcepsPaper towelsLab answer sheetDiagnostic Test Results sheetPatient Information sheets (5)Medical Tests & Possible Diagnosessheets (5)DirectionsTask12345ResponseFind a partner.This is a station activity. There are 5 stations representing patient rooms spread throughoutthe classroom. Each station has information and samples for an ill patient.Choose a patient station. Look through the “Patient Information” sheet and answerquestions 1 & 2 on the lab answer sheet.Look at the “Diagnostic Tests & Possible Diagnoses” sheet. Four possible diagnoses havebeen provided, with a description and the diagnostic test results that would occur if thepatient has that diagnosis. Answer question 3 on the lab answer sheet.A patient fluid sample has been provided, along with test sheets for each diagnostic test.Not all diagnostic tests need to be completed to find a diagnosis. Decide whichdiagnostic tests you will perform.To perform each test, remove a test paper from the bag with forceps. DO NOT USE YOUR7FINGERS!Open the patient sample. Using the forceps, dip half of the test paper in the patient8sample.Place the test paper on a paper towel and wait 20-30Results Example9seconds before observing the results.Record any color change in the diagnostic test results table10on the lab answer sheet.Look at the “Diagnostic Test Results” sheet to determine11what the color change could indicate.Using all of the information collected, diagnose your patient12 in question 4 on the lab answer sheet. Explain whatobservations or test results led to that diagnosis.636The Scientific Process and Diagnosis, HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01a

Name(s):Connections & ApplicationsPeriod:Date:Your instructor may assign or allow you to choose any of the following activities. As perNGSS/CCSS, these extensions allow students to explore outside activities recommended bythe standards.1. THE SCIENCE PROCESS IN MEDICINE: House M.D. is a television program that has hadseveral seasons on Fox since 2004. House focuses on the diagnostic process for difficultmedical cases. Choose any episode of House to watch. As you watch the episode,answer the following questions:a. What is the episode number and title?b. What are the patient’s symptoms?c. What information, if any, was found during the physical exam?d. Is there any medical or family history related to the symptoms?e. What is the initial (first) diagnosis?f. How is the patient being treated?g. Was the treatment effective? If not, what was the next step used by themedical team?h. How was the diagnosis process similar to the scientific process (observation,hypothesis, experiment, results, re-evaluate the hypothesis)2. SYMPTOM CHECKER: Go to the following website:http://symptoms.webmd.com/#introViewThe Internet provides a wealth of information, especially when it comes to looking intodiseases and diagnoses. This can be both helpful and dangerous, particularly forhypochondriacs! Regardless, the ability to check symptoms assists individuals indetermining whether they should seek medical help for a condition. For the followingthree individuals, use the WebMD symptom checker to check each symptom,complete the table, and answer the questions. Leave the “Zip code” and “Email”blank. Use the “Search Symptoms” box at the bottom of the page.a. Your friend Thomas Toms is a 15-year-old male. He is the star of the footballteam, and has always been very healthy. He and his family recently returnedfrom a cruise in Thailand.What condition could he have?Symptoms(list the top 5 possible conditions after submitting each symptom)Cough: can be felt in thechest, with yellow sputumFever: 102.7 F and increaseswith exerciseFatigue: severe, made worsewith exercise; better with restDiarrhea: severe, bloody,and nothing makes it betteri. What is the most likely cause of this individual’s condition? Describe thecondition. What brought you to this conclusion?ii. Should he seek medical help? Why or why not?The Scientific Process and Diagnosis, HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01a37

Name(s):Period:Date:b. Your friend’s aunt Hilda Higgins is a 28-year-old female. She is not currentlytaking any medications. She has not traveled or had surgery recently.What condition could she have?Symptoms(list the top 5 possible conditions after submitting each symptom)AnxietyDry skin: over her entire bodyConstipationDizzinessWheezingHeadache: severe,throbbing, at the back of thehead; appeared suddenlyand does not go awayi. What is the most likely cause of this individual’s condition? Describe thecondition. What brought you to this conclusion?ii. Should she seek medical help? Why or why not?c. Your retired elementary school teacher Wanda Woo is a 66-year-old female.She had hip replacement surgery a year ago, and spent the last 6 months inPapua New Guinea living with a native tribe in the jungle.What condition could she have?Symptoms(list the top 5 possible conditions after submitting each symptom)Decreased appetiteDifficulty swallowingDifficulty walking: in generalDizzinessEasily distractedFrequent infectionsTremblingi. What is the most likely cause of this individual’s condition? Describe thecondition. What brought you to this conclusion?ii. Should she seek medical help? Why or why not?38The Scientific Process and Diagnosis, HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01a

Name(s):Period:Date:3. ANALYSIS OF DIAGNOSTIC DATA: Chart A below contains the prevalence of childhoodcancer types by diagnosis. Using Chart A and Internet research, answer the followingquestions.a. It is important to check the validity of a resource before using information foundwithin that resource. How can we be sure the values provided in Chart A areaccurate? Using the Internet, determine the validity of Chart A. Provide links tocharts or papers with the same or very similar data.b. What is the most prevalent type of childhood cancer? Provide a description ofthis cancer type.c. What is the least prevalent type of childhood cancer(s)? Provide a descriptionof these cancer type(s).d. A total of 15,500 patients were taken into account for this data. Do you thinkthe data would be as accurate with only 1,000 patients? Explain your answer.e. How can data like this be used by healthcare professionals to better prepareand treat childhood cancer types? Explain your answer.CHART A. Childhood Cancer Types & /MedicalInformation/NumberOfDiagnoses.pngThe Scientific Process and Diagnosis, HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01a39

Name(s):40Period:Date:The Scientific Process and Diagnosis, HASPI Medical Biology Lab 01a