RTI Toolkit: A Practical Guide for SchoolsWhen Behavior is a Barrier to Learning:Using the Response to Intervention Modelto Address Challenging Student ConductJim Wright, Presenter31 January 2008Mississippi Association for Psychology in the Schools2008 Conference/Jackson, MSJim Wright364 Long RoadTully, NY 13159Email: [email protected]:

RTI Intervention Team: Teacher Referral Form:Secondary Level: Guidelines for UseIntroduction. The RTI Intervention Team: Teacher Referral Form: Secondary Level is to becompleted by middle and high school teachers prior to the initial problem-solving meeting held for astudent treferred to the school’s RTI Intervention Team.Directions. When a student is first referred to the middle or high school RTI Intervention Team,teachers who work with the student are each given a copy to complete of the RTI InterventionTeam: Teacher Referral Form: Secondary Level. The sections of this brief form are as follows: Global Skills Rating. The teacher rates the student’s standing in the class on five dimensions:(1) Reading Skills, (2) Mathematics Skills, (3) Written Expression Skills, (4)Study/Organization/Work Skills, and (5) Classroom Conduct. On each of these items, theteacher rates the student as Above Grade Level, At Grade Level, Somewhat Below GradeLevel or Significantly Below Grade Level: Test/Quiz Grades. The teacher lists up to six of the most recent test and/or quiz grades thatthe student achieved in the class. For each entry, the instructor notes the date of theexamination, whether a test or quiz was given, and the actual grade. The form also allows theteacher the option of visually graphing the grades. Concerns. The teacher notes up to 4 significant concerns that may be preventing the studentfrom being successful with academics and/or behaviors. Strategies. The teacher writes records any instructional or behavioral strategies that they haveused in the class in an attempt to address the noted student concern.Interpretation. The RTI Intervention Team collects Teacher Referral Forms from each of theteachers working with the student. Before meeting to discuss the student, the team compares andcontrasts responses across teaching staff, looking for significant patterns. In particular, the teamwill note whether teachers show similarities or differences across classrooms in: Ratings of student academic skills, organization, and classroom conductPatterns of test and quiz gradesConcerns noted about the studentIntervention strategies attempted\Prior to the initial problem-solving team meeting, the RTI Intervention Team uses the informationfrom the Teacher Referral Forms to better understand the needs of the referred student and tomake decisions about what additional data to collect on the student’s academic skills and/orbehaviors.Jim Wright, Presenterwww.interventioncentral.org2 of 65

RTI Intervention Team: Teacher Referral Form: Secondary LevelStudent: Teacher: Date:Course/Subject: Number of Absences This Year:Period(s) or Day(s) of Week/Time(s) When Course Meets:Global Skills Rating. Rate the student’s standing relative to other students in his or her class on the skills listedbelow. (If you are unsure of the student’s abilities on a particular skill, leave it blank.)Reading Skills1234 Mathematics Skills1234 Written Expression SkillsStudy & Organizational Skills1234 Classroom Conduct1234 1234 Significantly/SeverelySomewhat BelowAt GradeAbove GradeBelow Grade LevelGrade LevelLevelLevelTest/Quiz Grades. Chart the most recent test and/or quiz grades for this student.Test QuizTest QuizTest QuizTest QuizTest QuizTest 40404040202020202020000000Date: / / Date: / / Date: / / Date: / / Date: / / Date: / /Grade: Grade: Grade: Grade: Grade: Grade:123456Concerns. List up to 3 primary concerns that you have with this student in your classroom:1.2.3.Strategies. List specific strategies that you have tried in the classroom to support this student in area(s) of concern. Wright, Presenterwww.interventioncentral.org3 of 65

Student Learning SurveyStudent Name: Classroom: Date:Directions: Please complete this survey to give your teacher information about how you learn best.If you are not sure what to put for an answer, just write down your ‘best guess’.1. What do you prefer to be called by your teacher?2. When is your birthday?3. What is your most favorite subject or school activity?4. What is your least favorite subject or school activity?5. Do you like working in groups or alone on projects? State your reason(s) why:6. Organizational skills include having all of your work materials on hand in the classroom,using your work time well, and getting work assignments done and handed in on time. Ona rating scale from 1 (the lowest rating) to 10 (the highest rating), how would you rate yourorganizational skills?12345678Not organized at all910Very organized7. Describe your idea of the perfect classroom. What would it look like?8. What are your favorite ways to learn? (Pick as many as you like)Listening to lecturesListening to a taped bookDoing research on the InternetJim Wright, PresenterWorking with a friendWatching an educational videoDoing homeworkwww.interventioncentral.orgWorking as part of a groupDoing research in librariesOther:4 of 65

9. Write two words that best describe you:10. What are your favorite games, activities, sports, hobbies, or other interests?11. What are your favorite TV shows or movies?12. Describe how you study or review for a test:13. Occasionally, students can earn rewards in the class for working hard and turning incompleted work. What would be some good rewards or privileges you would like to be ableto earn in this classroom? (Be realistic!):Jim Wright, Presenterwww.interventioncentral.org5 of 65

Schoolwork Motivation Assessment(adapted from Witt & Beck, 1999; Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004)Student: Teacher/Classroom:Date of Assessment: / / Person Completing Assessment:Incentive / Reward MenuStep 1: Assemble an incentive menu. Create a 4-5item menu of modest incentives or rewards thatIdea 1:students in the class are most likely to find motivating.Examples of popular incentives include:Idea 2: small prizes such as pencils or stickers, 5 minutes of extra free time,Idea 3: an opportunity to play a computer game, praise note or positive phone call to parentIdea 4:Idea 5:Step 2: Create two versions of a CBM probe or timed worksheet. Make up two versions of astructured, timed worksheet with items of the type that the student appears to find challenging. Useone of the options below:Option 1:Create Curriculum-Based Measurement probes. The probes should be at the same levelof difficulty, but each probe should have different items or content to avoid a practice effect. NOTE:CBM probes in oral reading fluency, math computation, writing, and spelling can all be used.Option 2: Make up two versions of custom student worksheets. The worksheets should be at thesame level of difficulty, but each worksheet should have different items or content to avoid apractice effect. NOTE: If possible, the worksheets should contain standardized short-answer items(e.g., matching vocabulary words to their definitions) to allow you to calculate the student’s rate ofwork completion.Step 3: Administer the first CBM probe or timed worksheet to the student WITHOUTincentives. In a quiet, non-distracting location, administer the first worksheet or CBM probe undertimed, standardized conditions. Collect the probe or worksheet and score.Step 4: Compute an improvement goal. After youhave scored the first CBM probe or worksheet,compute a ’20 percent improvement goal’. Multiplythe student’s score on the worksheet by 1.2. Thisproduct represents the student’s minimum goal forimprovement.Jim Wright, PresenterStudent Score on FirstCBM Probe or WorksheetMultiplied by: 1.2Yields an improvementgoal of:www.interventioncentral.org6 of 65

Step 5: Have the student select an incentive for improved performance. Tell the student that ifhe or she can attain a score on the second worksheet that meets or exceeds your goal forimprovement (Step 3), the student can earn an incentive. Show the student the reward menu. Askthe student to select the incentive that he or she will earn if the student makes or exceeds the goal.Step 6: Administer the second timed worksheetto the student WITH incentives. Give the studentthe second CBM probe. Collect and score. If thestudent meets or exceeds the pre-set improvementgoal, award the student the incentive.Student Score on SecondCBM Probe or WorksheetCompared to:Improvement goal of:Step 7: Interpret the results of the academic motivation assessment to select appropriateinterventions. Use the decision-rules below to determine recommended type(s) of intervention: ACADEMIC INTERVENTIONS ONLY. If the student fails to meet or exceed the improvementgoal, an academic intervention should be selected to teach the appropriate skills or to providethe student with drill and practice opportunities to build fluency in the targeted academicarea(s).COMBINED ACADEMIC AND PERFORMANCE INTERVENTIONS. If the student meets orexceeds the improvement goal but continues to function significantly below the level ofclassmates, an intervention should be tailored that includes strategies to both improveacademic performance and to increase the student’s work motivation. The academic portion ofthe intervention should teach the appropriate skills or to provide the student with drill andpractice opportunities to build fluency in the targeted academic area(s). Ideas for performanceinterventions include (a) providing the student with incentives or ‘pay-offs’ for participationand/or (b) structuring academic lessons around topics or functional outcomes valued by thestudent.PERFORMANCE INTERVENTIONS ONLY. If the student meets or exceeds the improvementgoal with an incentive and shows academic skills that fall within the range of ‘typical’classmates, the intervention should target only student work performance or motivation. Ideasfor performance interventions include (a) providing the student with incentives or ‘pay-offs’ forparticipation and/or (b) structuring academic lessons around topics or functional outcomesvalued by the student.References:Witt, J., & Beck, R. (1999). One minure academic functional assessment andinterventions: "Can't"do it or "won't" do it? Longmont, CO: Sopris West.Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gilbertson, D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral interventions:A systematic process for finding and eliminating problems. School Psychology Review, 33, 363381.Jim Wright, Presenterwww.interventioncentral.org7 of 65

Permanent Products: Assessing the Completion, Accuracy, andOverall Quality of Student Independent WorkStudent: Date: Completed by:There are a number of reasons that students might have difficulty in completing independent classroomassignments. School staff can use a 4-step process to collect data about the student’s independent workhabits, rate of on-task behavior during class assignments, and quality and accuracy of the student’scompleted work (‘permanent products’).Step 1: Collect data on the student’s On-Task behavior during independent seatwork. Visit the student’sclassroom. Observe the student working independently on a class assignment. Using the IndependentSeatwork Observation Form, track the student’s rate of On-Task behavior on the assignment.Rate of On-Task Behavior: %Step 2: Analyze the student’s completed seatwork (permanent product). Estimate the amount of the assignment completed by the student. If the assignment containsdiscrete items (e.g., math computation problems), count up the number of items actually completed bythe student. Divide this figure by the total number of items contained in the assignment and thenmultiply by 100. If the assignment cannot easily be divided into discrete units (e.g., a written essay),estimate the approximate amount of the assignment that the student completed.Amount of assignment estimated to have been completed: % Estimate the accuracy or overall quality of the work that the student completed. If the assignmentcontains discrete items (e.g., math computation problems), divide the number of correct items by thenumber of items the student attempted (including partially completed items) and then multiply by 100.Estimated accuracy of completed work: %ORIf the assignment cannot easily be divided into discrete units (e.g., a written essay), use the simplequality rubric below to judge the overall quality of the work that the student actually completed:How would you judge the overall quality of the work produced by the student duringindependent seatwork? Circle your selection:1Significantly belowlevel of peers(rudimentary content,absence of ideas,and/or failure to usekey strategies orsteps)Jim Wright, Presenter2Somewhat below levelof peers (lackingcontent, inadequatedevelopment of ideas,and/or limitedapplication of keystrategies or steps)3At level of peers (e.g.,average content,development of ideas,application of keystrategies or steps)www.interventioncentral.org4Above peers in overallquality (e.g., strongcontent, ideasdeveloped to anadvanced degree,creative application ofkey strategies orsteps)8 of 65

Step 3: Compare the student’s performance on the assignment to that of a ‘typical’ classroom peer. Ask theteacher to select an ‘average’ student in the class who typically completes independent work at anacceptable level of completion, accuracy and quality. Collect that student’s completed seatwork (doneduring the same work period as that of your target student). Analyze the peer student’s seatwork using thesame standards used with the target student.Peer Comparison: Amount of assignment estimated to have been completed: %Peer Comparison: Estimated accuracy of completed work: %ORPeer Comparison: Quality Rubric Rating: 1234Step 4: Select interventions that match the ‘root cause’ of the student’s problem with independent work.Pool the information that you have collected through direct observation of the student, analysis of thestudent’s work products, and a comparison of the student’s performance to that of peers. Then generate ahypothesis, or ‘best guess’, about why the student is having problems with seatwork.Common reasons for student difficulties with independent work are: CarelessnessInattentionSkill deficitsLack of motivationBelow are possible scenarios of student problems and sample interventions to consider for each scenario.Student ScenariosThe student completes independent work quicklywith time to spare--but the work contains ‘careless’mistakes or is of poor quality.The student was off-task during much of the worksession. The assignment was not completed withinthe time allocated.The completed assignment was of poor qualityand/or contained many errors.Jim Wright, PresenterSample Intervention Ideas Provide the student with incentives to slowdown and use the full time allocated to completethe assignment. Require that the student use a quality checklistor rubric to review work before turning it in. Ifthe student attempts to turn in completed workthat does not meet teacher expectations, sendthe student back to his or her seat to continue towork on the assignment. Use strategies to increase the student’sattention to task (e.g., teacher redirection totask, student self-monitoring of workcompletion). Review with the student the skills or strategiesrequired for the assignment. Give the student correctly completed modelssimilar to what the student must produce for theassignment. Encourage the student to refer tothese models whenever he or she is ‘stuck’. Approach the student in a low-key mannerperiodically during independent seatwork to seeif the student requires assistance. Provide the student an incentive (e.g., fivewww.interventioncentral.org9 of 65

The student did not complete the assignment in theallotted time. However, the student demonstrated ahigh degree of quality and/or accuracy in his or herwork.Jim Wright, Presenteradditional minutes of free time) if the studentimproves the quality or accuracy of the work.Boost the student’s speed by providing him or herwith opportunities to practice the skills or strategiesrequired for the assignment. Give the studentfeedback and encouragement as the studentincreases his or her working speed.www.interventioncentral.org10 of 65

Independent Seatwork Observation FormStudent Name: Date:Observer: Location: Start Time: End Time:Description of Activities:This simple observation form is used to determine the amount of time that a student is on-task whencompleting an independent assignment in the classroom. It can be used for an observation of up to 15minutes.Directions: Observe the student at a time when the student is scheduled to be engaged in independentseatwork.On-Task Behavior is coded using a momentary time-sampling procedure. At the start of each 15-secondinterval, the observer glances at the target child for approximately two seconds and determines if the child ison-task or off-task during the brief observation. If the child is found to be on-task (doing his or her assignedseatwork), the interval is marked with an "X." If the child is off-task, the interval remains unmarked. Theobserver then ignores this behavior category until the onset of the next time interval.Use Table 1 below (‘Calculate the Rate of On-Task Behavior During the Observation Period’) to calculatethe student’s time on task (engaged academic 4:304:459:309:45ON-TASK6789109:15ON-TASK111210:00 10:15 10:30 10:4511:00 11:15 11:30 11:451312:00 12:15 12:30 12:45141513:00 13:15 13:30 13:4514:00 14:15 14:30 14:45ON-TASKTable 1: Calculate the Rate of On-Task Behavior During the Observation PeriodThe TOTALRate (in decimalNumber ofnumber ofform) that theintervals inintervals in theOn-Taskwhich the OnType of Task behaviorobservationbehaviorBehavior was observed.period(s)occurred duringthe observation.ON-TASKDividedEqualsbyJim Wright, Presenterwww.interventioncentral.orgRate (in percentageform) that the On-Taskbehavior occurredduring the observation.Times 100 %11 of 65

Student On-Task Observation FormStudent Name: Date:Observer: Location: Start Time: End Time:Description of Activities:Directions: Observe the student at a time when the student is engaged in independent seatwork orattending to large-group instruction. On-Task Behavior is the only behavior being recorded. It is coded usinga momentary time-sampling procedure. At the start of each 15-second interval, glance at the target child forapproximately two seconds and determine if the child is on-task or off-task during the brief observation. Ifthe child is found to be on-task (attending to large-group instruction or doing his or her assigned seatwork),mark the interval with an "X." If the child is off-task, leave the article unmarked. Then keep running notes ofany student behaviors or classroom events until til the onset of the next