A GUIDEBOOK IN PC HARDWARE, MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRENT 284 - PRINCE GEORGE'S COMMUNITY COLLEGECopyright, William A. Lloyd, 1997.Reproduction of these materials is prohibitedwithout the express written consent of the author.

TABLE OF CONTENTS - PAGE 1TopicPage NumberForewordCourse Objectives and Required MaterialsPlaces to get a toolkitCourse Reading AssignmentSection 1: Learning the BasicsFacts about electrical power and surge suppressorsHow do viruses affect your computerDefinitions of basic computer componentsTypes of bus connectorsWhat is POST and what does it do for youSteps in the boot processTypical AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS filesMemory usage in the DOS environmentGeneral guidelines for repairing computersGood diagnostic and preparation softwareHow to fill out a tag on a tested computerComponent identification worksheetParts identification worksheetHow to identify a motherboardBasic DOS commandsTips to remember when running CMOS setup programsSteps to preparing a hard disk for useIRQ and port address reference sheetComputer Reclamation PC repair guidelinesFloppy drive testing guidelinesHard drive testing guidelinesMonitor testing guidelinesKeyboard testing guidelinesWhat exactly is a networkWhat exactly is a serverMajor types of network topologiesHow do networks pass data from one place to anotherHow will my PC operate when connected to a LANWhat happens when you log into a networkWhat will be covered in Test #1Section 2: Moving to the next levelWhat makes a PC "conservatively designed"What makes a multimedia PCTips to remember when buying a PCTips to remember when supporting computer systemsCheckit basicsNorton Utilities basicsSpinrite basicsModem communications basicsGuide to using Procomm version 2.4.2Steps to bringing a new PC to lifeImportant things to remember when installing a motherboardNew PC building checksheetImportant things to remember when installing a motherboardHard disk installation checksheetA Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page am Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

TABLE OF CONTENTS - PAGE 2TopicPage NumberHow to install a sound card in your PCSound card installation checksheetHow to install a CD-ROM drive in your PCCD-ROM installation checksheetFax modem installation checksheetWhat will be covered in Test #2Section 3: Coming to a conclusionStages in the laser printing processPrinter maintenance instructionsWhat happens when the server breaks downIf I unplug or disconnect my network cable from my PC .Can computer viruses be spread through a LANHow do I install a network interface cardHow do I install Novell Netware on a PCMain Novell Netware (version 3.x) utility programsWhat will be covered in Test #3Hardware Parts QuizPC Upgrading QuizPC Upgrading Quiz - Answer sheetSample Exam #1Sample Exam #2Homework Assignment #1Homework Assignment #2Homework Assignment #3Homework Assignment #4Homework Assignment #5Homework Assignment #6Homework Assignment #7Homework Assignment #8Homework Assignment #9Homework Assignment #10What is PKZIP, and what can it do for youFinding files on the Resource PCAppendix A: DOS/Windows A Examination Review Course NotesUsing the FDISK and FORMAT commands in DOSUsing DEFRAG and SCANDISKUsing MEMMAKER to optimize memoryTypical CONFIG.SYS fileTypical AUTOEXEC.BATUnderstanding .INI files in WindowsUsing Control Panel in WindowsInstalling video card drivers in WindowsConfiguring printers in WindowsInstalling Windows applicationsInstalling Netscape on a PCTips on reinstalling WindowsWhat is Research Technology Associates, Inc.Guidelines for obtaining equipment from Research Technology Associates, Inc.Guidelines for donating equipment from Research Technology Associates, Inc.A Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page 116117118119120121122123William Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

FOREWORDThese course materials were developed for use in the PC Hardware, PC Repair, Repair and Maintenance of PersonalComputers, and Introduction to Local Area Networks courses which I taught at Prince George's Community College, inLargo, Maryland. I developed these materials myself, with a view towards making complex issues in PC hardware andmaintenance easy to understand. Through several years of teaching these courses and refining these materials,I believe this manual will be a useful resource for the reader.I would like to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to a number of people who have made the development andimplementation of this course possible over the years:ooooMy wife, Joyce, and my three children (Christina, Matthew and David), who have shared me with hundreds of studentsover the years;William Lauffer, the dean of Engineering Technology at Prince George's Community College, who gave me theopportunity to develop and teach these courses;Dirk Faas, Bradley Faas, and Darrell Mattheis, my engineering assistants, who have made me look good so many timesand have helped so many students when there wasn't enough of me to go around 20 students at a time; andMichael Wiggins, Ken Chapman, Dan and Polly Dyer, Paul Blose, Rick Caceres, Mary Waynes, John Peoples, RobertChang, Godwin Larbi, Jim Offutt, Alan Wurtzel, and all of the staff and volunteers of Computer Reclamation, Inc. Thecreative input, hard work, and selfless sacrifice of these individuals has helped to make me the instructor that I am, andthe raw materials that Computer Reclamation provides helps the students to become the repair technicians they desire tobe. The work we do together helps so very many people, and your contributions are recognized and applauded here.Reproduction of these materials without the express written permission of the author is prohibited. If you would like to obtaina copy of these materials, if you would like to have me come and teach my courses for your organization, or if you would liketo license this curriculum for use with your school or non-profit organization, please contact me at the following address:William A. Lloydc/o Research Technology Associates12221 Van Brady RoadUpper Marlboro, MD 20772301/322-0057E-mail address: [email protected] information for this manual and other information about this course series will be provided upon request.A Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page ivWilliam Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

COURSE OBJECTIVES, AND REQUIRED MATERIALSTEXTBOOKSAND TOOLS:Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 10th Edition, by Scott Mueller;published by Que Corporation. Approximate Cost: 49.95The purchase of a computer repair toolkit is NECESSARY in order to do the work of computer repair.Details are provided on page 2 of this text on what kind of toolkit to buy, and where to buy it.MISSIONSTATEMENT: These notes (and related course lectures) will enable you to learn the following 8)19)Identify major components and sub-systems of an IBM-class microcomputer by visualexamination alone;Understand what takes place with the computer's hardware when the computer operates in anormal fashion;Use diagnostic and evaluation software (such as Checkit or Norton Utilities) to analyze or troubleshoot an operating or faulty PC;Assemble and disassemble an IBM-class PC, with a view towards upgrading PCs by motherboardreplacement, and substitution of major components;Setup, install and configure motherboards, hard disks, floppy disk drives, video cards,parallel/serial port devices, and network cards (including setting IRQ jumpers and/or running setupsoftware);Install and use network software and other kinds of data communications software (such asNovell Netware and Procomm);Accurately trouble-shoot most typical kinds of hardware failures in an IBM-class PC whenpresented with a faulty PC.Identify the components needed to convert a PC into a "Multimedia PC", and understand how CDROM, sound card, and Multimedia technology works.Identify and understand the hardware layout of a Macintosh computer, and gain a generalknowledge of the Mac OS.Understand how dot-matrix, ink-jet and laser printers work, and how to trouble-shoot, repair andmaintain them.Understand basic techniques of asking customers about their computer problems, and how tohandle customer questions concerning their computer.Developing a computer repair kit that contains the right software, hardware, tools and spare partsneeded to do any repair work.Gain a broad understanding of what a Local Area Network is;Understand the major types of Local Area Networks, specifically ethernet, arcnet, and token ringtopologies;Understand the processes that take place at both a hardware and software level when one logs inand interacts with a network through an end-user PC;Understand how to install a network card in a PC;Understand how to install Novell Netware on an end-user PC;Understand how to log into a Novell network, and use several of the utilities found in Netware(SYSCON, PCONSOLE, FILER, SALVAGE, RIGHTS, WHOAMI, etc)Prepare you to take and pass the core portion of the A PC Hardware Repair TechnicianCertification examination; information will be provided on preparation resources for theDOS/Windows portion of the A Certification examination.A Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page 1William Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

PLACES TO GET A TOOLKITThe toolkit you need to do the work of computer repair should be simple, and cost less than 20.00.It should include at least the following things:-Phillips and flat blade screwdrivers (small and medium size)A 3-claw part grabberA chip inserter and chip extractorA TORX head screwdriverA 1/4" and 3/16" nut driverPerhaps a container to hold small parts and screwsThings you do NOT need include:-A soldering gunMagnetic toolsDrillsIf you have a small voltmeter, that's good; it may be useful in some instances. We have voltmeters in the lab, so you don'thave to run out and buy one.WHERE DO I BUY SUCH A TOOLKIT?Look in places like:-Sam's ClubMicroCenter-Egghead SoftwareOffice Depot-CompUSAStaples-Radio ShackPC ShowsCall before you go!! Make sure the store has the kits before you travel out there.NOTE:I share NO financial stake in any of the above-mentioned companies. I simply give them as sources other studentsand colleagues have used in the past to find decent toolkits for these courses.A Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page 2William Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

COURSE READING ASSIGNMENTSBy the sixth class session of this course, you will be expected to have read the following chapters in the Mueller textbook(10th Edition):Chapter NumberSubjects CoveredChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 19Chapter 20Chapter 21Chapter 22Personal Computer BackgroundOverview of System Features and ComponentsSystem Teardown and InspectionMotherboardsBus Slots and I/O CardsMicroprocessor Types and SpecificationsMemoryBuilding a System from ScratchPreventative Maintenance, Backups & WarrantiesSoftware & Hardware Diagnostic ToolsOperating Systems Software & TroubleshootingBy the tenth class session of this course, you will be expected to have read the following chapters in the Mueller textbook:Chapter NumberSubjects CoveredChapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Chapter 15Chapter 16Chapter 17Chapter 18Appendix AVideo Display Hardware & SpecsCommunications and NetworkingAudio HardwareFloppy Disk Drives & Controllers (please skim read)Hard Disk Drives & Controllers (skim)Hard Disk Interfaces (focus on IDE and SCSI)Hard Disk Drive InstallationCD-ROM DevicesTape and Other Mass-Storage Devices (skim)PC Technical Reference (skim)Isn't this a lot of reading?Yes, it is. However, what you will read here will be covered in the lecture AND in the notes package I have given you. Itreinforces what we talk about in class, and will give you good questions to ask.What if I don't understand something?Don't worry. Make a note of your questions, and bring them up in class. This is your opportunity to fill in gaps in yourunderstanding of how PCs work. The textbook is written in fairly non-technical English, so it will serve as a good tool forlearning.A Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page 3William Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

SECTION 1: LEARNING THE BASICSIn the first part of the course, we will focus on learning the essentials about personal computer hardware. You will learnabout the following kinds of things:oooooooooooElectrical power and surge suppressorsHow do computer viruses affect your PC, and how do you deal with virus problems?What are the major components inside your PC, and what do each of these components do?How do different types of the same components compare, one with each other?(for example, why is an 80486DX processor better than an 80486SX, or an 80386DX?)What is the Power-On Self Test, or POST, and what does it do for the computer user?What are error codes and audio error codes, and how can you decipher these codes?How do you open and disassemble a PC, and how can you identify the major components?What guidelines should you use when testing or checking a PC?How do you fill out a "toe tag", which is an identification sheet labelling each tested PC?How do you visually identify specific computer components?What software can you use to test and identify components in your PC?This course manual covers all of the topics that will be discussed in the lecture portion of the class. Your instructor willfollow the outlines laid out in this manual. The manual has been designed to free you from needing to take lots of notes duringthe lecture sessions . the lecture notes for the instructor contain the same kinds of information as your course manual. Asthe lecture progresses, review the manual and add any explanatory notes into the space provided on each page.At the end of section one, there is a list of all of the major questions that will be asked on the first test. Use this information asa checklist to prepare you for the first test. Be sure to do the required course readings in the textbook as well . it will alsohelp you prepare for the examinations in the course.A Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page 4William Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

FACTS ABOUT ELECTRICAL POWER AND SURGE SUPPRESSORSThe voltage you get from the wall socket is NOT always what you expect .There are periodic fluctuations in voltage from devices going on and off in your building, problems in the transmission line,electrical storms, bad or faulty transformers, etc. Sometimes these fluctuations in voltage may exceed several thousand volts.When this happens, bad things can happen to good computers (or any other kinds of electrical devices).Surge SuppressorA surge suppressor provides a way to deal with voltage spikes (but not loss of voltage). The surge suppressor has a metaloxide varistor (MOV) that will shunt excess voltages to ground, thereby saving your PC.When buying a surge suppressor, the most important thing to check for is the clamping voltage of the unit. Theclamping voltage is that point when excess voltage will be diverted to ground. A good suppressor will have a clamping voltageof approximately 300 volts, and will have a Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) listing of UL 1449. This is sufficient to protectyour PC from harmful excess voltage.Reliable surge suppressor are made by the following companies:-APC -TrippLite-CurtisAs long as the suppressor has the UL 1449 rating and a 300 volt clamping voltage, it will serve you well. These should costyou between 30 and 60 in the local stores.Uninterruptible Power SupplyAn uninterruptible power supply (UPS) will have this same technology, but it contains a battery in it as well. The battery inthe UPS will allow your PC to continue to operate if power has been cut off to your building. HOWEVER, it will only last fora few minutes (5 - 30 minutes). An UPS allows you to shut off your PC in a normal fashion in the event of a power failure.These will cost at least 100 for a low-end model, and high-performance versions can cost thousands of dollars.If you have intermittent voltage failures in your area (i.e., the power frequently cuts off for only a second), consider getting alow-end surge suppressor. It will save you immense amounts of grief when using your PC, since all the information stored inRAM is wiped out when power is cut off.NOTESA Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page 5William Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

HOW DO VIRUSES AFFECT YOUR PCViruses will affect your PC in 4 different ways . . .1)The Boot Sector:The boot sector is where your operating system files reside on your floppyor hard disk. A virus will go to that location on your disk and corrupt thesefiles (IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and COMMAND.COM) so that your PC willNOT boot up as expected.EXAMPLE: the STONED virus.2)The File Allocation Table:The File Allocation Table (FAT) is a list of all the files on your floppy orhard disk, and where the files are physically located on the disk. A viruswill corrupt the FAT so that you cannot locate or access your files.EXAMPLE: the CASCADE virus.3)The Partition Table:The partition table on your HARD DISK tells MS-DOS how big your harddisk is, and what percentage of it is used by MS-DOS. A virus can corruptyour partition table, which wipes out ALL of your files in an instant.EXAMPLE: the MICHELANGELO virus.4).COM and .EXE Files:Files with these extensions are EXECUTABLE files, which perform aspecific action. A virus can attach itself to one of these kinds of files andcorrupt the way it operates.EXAMPLE: the 4096 virus.3 THINGS A GOOD VIRUS PROTECTION PROGRAM SHOULD DO1)SCAN for viruses:A good program should be able to check your floppy and hard disks forviruses, as well as the RAM of your computer, and detect the presence of avirus in the 4 locations mentioned above.2)CLEAN up the virus:A good program must be able to get rid of the virus it finds in any of the 4places mentioned above; otherwise, it's useless.3)PROTECT YOU from viruses: A good program must have the ability to load a piece of the program into memoryat boot-up time, to protect you from getting a virus in the first place. This typeof program is called a "Terminate-and-Stay-Resident" (TSR) program.Good programs include McAfee's SCAN, and F-Prot. Both of these are shareware programs, and are available from theinstructor upon request.A Guidebook in PC Hardware, Maintenance and RepairCopyright, 1997Page 6William Lloyd, Instructor301/372-2889

DEFINITIONS OF BASIC COMPUTER COMPONENTSOn the next few pages are listed the definitions of major computer components.MOTHERBOARD: The main board (guts) of computer; the central processor chip (CPU) is on the motherboard; all adaptercards plug into the motherboard; it is the largest single board in computer. There are several types ofCPU chips found on motherboards:8088 CPU; inputs8 bits of dataProcesses 8 bits of dataOutputs 8 bits of data80286 CPU; inputs16 bits of dataProcesses 16 bits of dataOutputs 16 bits of data80386SX CPU; inputs16 bits of data *Processes 32 bits of dataOutputs 16 bits of dataat a time80386DX CPU; inputs32 bits of dataProcesses 32 bits of dataOutputs 32 bits of data80486SX CPU; inputs32 bits of dataProcesses 32 bits of dataOutputs 32 bits of data80486DX CPU; inputs32 bits of data **Processes 32 bits of dataOutputs 32 bits of data'586 CPU: inputs32 bits of dataProcesses 32 bits of dataOutputs 32 bits of dataPentium/P6/K5 CPU:inputs 64 bits of dataProcesses 64 bits of dataOutputs 64 bits of dataPentium Pro CPU: ***inputs 64 bits of dataProcesses 64 bits of dataOutputs 64 bits of data*The 80386SX CPU takes 2 clock cycles to input 32 bits of data to process; this CPU