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Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionWorkshop AgendaRTI Across the Tiers: An IntroductionRTI: Planning EffectiveInterventions Across the Tiers:A Skill-Building LabTiers 1, 2, & 3: Distinguishing FeaturesJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.orgActivities: Applying RTI Tier ContentAction ncentral.orgResponse to InterventionResponse to InterventionBefore Implementing Tiered Interventions, First DefineStudent NeedsSchool Instructional Time: The Irreplaceable Resource“In the average school system, there are 330minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes inthe instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in theinstructional year. Except in unusual circumstances,these are the only minutes we have to provideeffective services for students. The number of yearswe have to apply these minutes is fixed. Therefore,each minute counts and schools cannot afford tosupport inefficient models of service delivery.”p. 177“Student difficulty is regarded as the result of a mismatchbetween student need and the resources that have beenprovided.” Burns & Gibbons, 2008; p. 95“Problems are an unacceptable discrepancy between what isexpected and what is observed A problem solution isdefined as one or more changes to the instruction,curriculum, or environment that function(s) to reduce oreliminate a problem.” T. Christ (2008); p. 159Source: Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon, D. N., & Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 177-193).www.interventioncentral.org3Sources: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge:New York.Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 159176). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.www.interventioncentral.org4Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionAcademic or Behavioral Targets Are Stated as‘Replacement Behaviors’Essential Elements of Any Academic or BehavioralIntervention (‘Treatment’) Strategy:“The implementation of successful interventions beginswith accurate problem identification. Traditionally, thestudent problem was stated as a broad, generalconcern (e.g., impulsive, aggressive, reading belowgrade level) that a teacher identified. In a competencybased approach, however, the problem identification isstated in terms of the desired replacement behaviorsthat will increase the student’s probability of successfuladaptation to the task demands of the academicsetting.” p. 178Source: Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon, D. N., & Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 177-193).www.interventioncentral.org5 Method of delivery (‘Who or what delivers the treatment?’)Examples include teachers, paraprofessionals, parents, volunteers,computers. Treatment component (‘What makes the intervention effective?’)Examples include activation of prior knowledge to help the student tomake meaningful connections between ‘known’ and new material;guide practice (e.g., Paired Reading) to increase reading fluency;periodic review of material to aid student retention. As an example ofa research-based commercial program, Read Naturally ‘combinesteacher modeling, repeated reading and progress monitoring toremediate fluency problems’.www.interventioncentral.org61

Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionInterventions, Accommodations & Modifications:Sorting Them OutInterventions, Accommodations & Modifications:Sorting Them Out Interventions. An academic intervention is a strategyused to teach a new skill, build fluency in a skill, orencourage a child to apply an existing skill to newsituations or settings. Accommodations. An accommodation is intended to helpthe student to fully access the general-education curriculumwithout changing the instructional content. Anaccommodation for students who are slow readers, forexample, may include having them supplement their silentreading of a novel by listening to the book on tape.An intervention is said to be research-based when it hasbeen demonstrated to be effective in one or morearticles published in peer–reviewed scientific journals.Interventions might be based on commercial programssuch as Read Naturally. The school may also developand implement an intervention that is based onguidelines provided in research articles—such asPaired Reading (Topping, 1987).An accommodation is intended to remove barriers tolearning while still expecting that students will master thesame instructional content as their typical peers. Informalaccommodations may be used at the classroom level or beincorporated into a more intensive, individualizedintervention ntral.org7Response to InterventionResponse to Intervention7-Step ‘Lifecycle’ of an Intervention Planat Any Tier Interventions, Accommodations & Modifications:Sorting Them Out1. Modifications. A modification changes the expectations ofwhat a student is expected to know or do—typically bylowering the academic expectations against which thestudent is to be evaluated.2.3.4.5.Examples of modifications are reducing the number ofmultiple-choice items in a test from five to four or shorteninga spelling list. Under RTI, modifications are generally notincluded in a student’s intervention plan, because theworking assumption is that the student can be successful inthe curriculum with appropriate interventions andaccommodations alone.6.7.www.interventioncentral.orgInformation about the student’s academic orbehavioral concerns is collected.The intervention plan is developed to match studentpresenting concerns.Preparations are made to implement the plan.The plan begins.The integrity of the plan’s implementation ismeasured.Formative data is collected to evaluate the plan’seffectiveness.The plan is discontinued, modified, or replaced.www.interventioncentral.org9Response to Intervention10Response to InterventionIncreasing the Intensity of an Intervention: Key DimensionsInterventions can move up the RTI Tiers through beingintensified across several dimensions, including: Student-teacher ratioLength of intervention sessionsFrequency of intervention sessionsDuration of the intervention period (e.g., extending an interventionfrom 5 weeks to 10 weeks) Type of intervention strategy or materials used Motivation strategiesRTI ‘Pyramid ofInterventions’Tier IIITier IITier ISource: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools.Routledge: New York.Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., & Kalymon, K. M. (2007). Response to intervention: Conceptual and methodological issuesin implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention: Thescience and practice of assessment and intervention. New York: Springer.www.interventioncentral.org811Tier 3: Intensive interventions.Students who are ‘nonresponders’ to Tiers I & II may beeligible for special educationservices, intensive interventions.Tier 2: Individualizedinterventions. Subset ofstudents receive interventionstargeting specific needs. An RTITeam may assist with the plan.Tier 1: Universal interventions.Available to all students in aclassroom or school. Can consistof whole-group or individualstrategies or supports.www.interventioncentral.org122

Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionRTI: Listening to the ‘Teacher’s Voice’ Tier I InterventionsTier I interventions are universal—available to all students. Teachersoften deliver these interventions in the classroom.Tier I interventions are those strategies that instructors are likely to putinto place at the first sign that a student is struggling.These interventions can consist of:-Effective ‘whole-group’ teaching & management strategies-Modest individualized strategies that the teacher uses with specificstudents.Tier I interventions attempt to answer the question: Are routineclassroom instructional strategies sufficient to help the student toachieve academic ioncentral.orgResponse to InterventionResponse to InterventionInterventions, Accommodations & Modifications:Sorting Them OutInterventions, Accommodations & Modifications:Sorting Them Out Interventions. An academic intervention is a strategyused to teach a new skill, build fluency in a skill, orencourage a child to apply an existing skill to newsituations or settings. Accommodations. An accommodation is intended to helpthe student to fully access the general-education curriculumwithout changing the instructional content. Anaccommodation for students who are slow readers, forexample, may include having them supplement their silentreading of a novel by listening to the book on tape.An intervention is said to be research-based when it hasbeen demonstrated to be effective in one or morearticles published in peer–reviewed scientific journals.Interventions might be based on commercial programssuch as Read Naturally. The school may also developand implement an intervention that is based onguidelines provided in research articles—such asPaired Reading (Topping, 1987).www.interventioncentral.org14An accommodation is intended to remove barriers tolearning while still expecting that students will master thesame instructional content as their typical peers. Informalaccommodations may be used at the classroom level or beincorporated into a more intensive, individualizedintervention plan.15Response to Interventionwww.interventioncentral.org16Response to InterventionMaintaining Classroom Discipline (1947): Pt. 1 of 3 (4:12)Interventions, Accommodations & Modifications:Sorting Them Out Modifications. A modification changes the expectations ofwhat a student is expected to know or do—typically bylowering the academic expectations against which thestudent is to be evaluated.Examples of modifications are reducing the number ofmultiple-choice items in a test from five to four or shorteninga spelling list. Under RTI, modifications are generally notincluded in a student’s intervention plan, because theworking assumption is that the student can be successful inthe curriculum with appropriate interventions andaccommodations alone.www.interventioncentral.org17Source: Internet Archive. Retrieved September 23, 2007, from erventioncentral.org183

Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionRTI: Research QuestionsTier 1: What Are the Recommended Elements of ‘CoreCurriculum’?: More Research Needed“In essence, we now have a good beginning on theevaluation of Tier 2 and 3 interventions, but no ideaabout what it will take to get the core curriculum towork at Tier 1. A complicating issue with thispotential line of research is that many schools usemultiple materials as their core program.” p. 640Q: What is the nature of Tier I Instruction?There is a lack of agreement about what we mean by ‘scientificallyvalidated’ classroom (Tier I) interventions. Districts should establish a‘vetting’ process—criteria for judging whether a particular instructional orintervention approach should be considered empirically based.Source: Kovelski, J. F. (2007). Response to intervention: Considerations for research and systems change. School PsychologyReview, 36, 638-646.www.interventioncentral.org19Source: Fuchs, D., & Deshler, D. D. (2007). What we need to know about responsiveness to intervention (and shouldn’t beafraid to ask). Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, e to Intervention20Response to InterventionTeam Activity: Tier 1: Classroom InterventionsAs a group:www.interventioncentral.org Appoint a recorder. Review the Tier 1 (Classroom) InterventionPlanner on p. 2. Discuss and jot down ways that your schoolcan promote teachers’ use of the form todocument Tier 1 intervention strategies –e.g., by connecting use of the form toopportunities for team discussions ofstudents or by identifying a roster ofconsultants in the school that teachers canseek out for intervention ideas.www.interventioncentral.org21Response to Intervention22Response to InterventionAvoiding the ‘Reprimand Trap’Building Positive RelationshipsWith StudentsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.orgWhen working with students whodisplay challenging behaviors,instructors can easily fall into the‘reprimand trap’. In this sequence:1.2.3.www.interventioncentral.orgThe student misbehaves.The teacher approaches the student to reprimand andredirect. (But the teacher tends not to give the studentattention for positive behaviors, such as payingattention and doing school work.)As the misbehave-reprimand pattern becomesingrained, both student and teacher experience astrained relationship and negative feelings.www.interventioncentral.org244

Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionSample Ideas to Improve Relationships WithStudents: The Two-By-Ten Intervention (Mendler, 2000)Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships WithStudents: The Three-to-One Intervention(Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002) Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per dayfor 10 consecutive days in building a relationshipwith the student by talking about topics ofinterest to the student. Give positive attention or praise to problemstudents at least three times more frequentlythan you reprimand them.Give the student the attention or praise duringmoments when that student is actingappropriately. Keep track of how frequently yougive positive attention and reprimands to thestudent.Avoid discussing problems with the student’sbehaviors or schoolwork during these times.Source: Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating students who don’t care. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.www.interventioncentral.org25Source: Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., & Nolet, V. (2002). Prevention and management of behavior problems in secondaryschools. In M. A. Shinn, H. M. Walker & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive andremedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.www.interventioncentral.orgResponse to Intervention26Response to InterventionHow Do Schools ‘Standardize’ Expectations forTier I Interventions? A Four-Step w.interventioncentral.orgDevelop a list of your school’s ‘top five’ academic andbehavioral referral concerns (e.g., low reading fluency,inattention).Create a survey for teachers, asking them to jot down the‘good teaching’ ideas that they use independently when theyencounter students who struggle in these problem areas.Collect the best of these ideas into a menu. Add additionalresearch-based ideas if available.Require that teachers implement a certain number of thesestrategies before referring to your RTI Intervention Team.Consider ways that teachers can document these Tier Iinterventions as well.www.interventioncentral.org27Response to Intervention28Response to InterventionSample Classroom Management Strategy: Good Behavior Game(Barrish,Saunders, & Wold, 1969)The Good Behavior Game is a whole-class intervention to improve studentattending and academic engagement. It is best used during structured classtime: for example, whole-group instruction or periods of independentseatworkGood Behavior GameDescription: The class is divided into two or more student teams. Theteacher defines a small set of 2 to 3 negative behaviors. When a studentshows a problem behavior, the teacher assigns a negative behavior ‘point’to that student’s team. At the end of the Game time period, any team whosenumber of points falls below a ‘cut-off’ set by the teacher earns a dailyreward or privilege.(Barrish, Saunders, & Wold, 1969)Guidelines for using this intervention: The Game is ideal to use with theentire class during academic study or lecture periods to keep studentsacademically oncentral.org305

Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionGood Behavior Game: StepsGood Behavior Game: Steps1.The instructor decides when to schedule the Game. (NOTE:Generally, the Good Behavior Game should be used for nomore than 45 to 60 minutes per day to maintain itseffectiveness.)2. The instructor defines the 2-3 negative behaviors that will bescored during the Game. Most teachers use these 3categories: Talking Out: The student talks, calls out, or otherwiseverbalizes without teacher permission. Out of Seat: The student’s posterior is not on the seat. Disruptive Behavior: The student engages in any otherbehavior that the instructor finds distracting or problematic.www.interventioncentral.org3.4.5.The instructor selects a daily reward to be awarded to eachmember of successful student teams. (HINT: Try to selectrewards that are inexpensive or free. For example, studentwinners might be given a coupon permitting them to skip onehomework item that night.)The instructor divides the class into 2 or more teams.The instructor selects a daily cut-off level that represents themaximum number of points that a team is allowed (e.g., 5points).www.interventioncentral.org31Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionGood Behavior Game: TroubleshootingGood Behavior Game: StepsHere are some tips for using the Good Behavior Game: Avoid the temptation to overuse the Game. Limit its use to no morethan 45 minutes to an hour per day. If a student engages in repeated bad behavior to sabotage a teamand cause it to lose, you can create an additional ‘team of one’ thathas only one member--the misbehaving student. This student canstill participate in the Game but is no longer able to spoil the Gamefor peers! If the Game appears to be losing effectiveness, check to be sure it isbeing implemented with care and that you are:– Assigning points consistently when you observe misbehavior.– Not allowing yourself to be pulled into arguments with studentswhen you assign points for misbehavior.– Reliably giving rewards to Game winners.– Not overusing the Game.6.When the Game is being played, the instructor teaches in the usualmanner. Whenever the instructor observes student misbehaviorduring the lesson, the instructor silently assigns a point to thatstudent’s team (e.g., as a tally mark on the board) and continues toteach.7. When the Game period is over, the teacher tallies each team’spoints. Here are the rules for deciding the winner(s) of the Game: Any team whose point total is at or below the pre-determinedcut-off earns the daily reward. (NOTE: This means that morethan one team can win!) If one team’s point total is above the cut-off level, that teamdoes not earn a reward. If ALL teams have point totals that EXCEED the cut-off level forthat day, only the team with the LOWEST number of tioncentral.org33Response to InterventionGood Behavior GameTeam 1Team 2Out of SeatDisruptive34Response to InterventionCut-Off 5Game OverCall OutRTI ‘Pyramid ofInterventions’Tier IIITier IITier IAnswer: Both teams won the Game, as both teams’ point totals fellQuestion: Which team won this Game?BELOW the cut-off of 5 points.www.interventioncentral.org3235Tier 3: Intensive interventions.Students who are ‘nonresponders’ to Tiers I & II may beeligible for special educationservices, intensive interventions.Tier 2: Individualizedinterventions. Subset ofstudents receive interventionstargeting specific needs. An RTITeam may assist with the plan.Tier 1: Universal interventions.Available to all students in aclassroom or school. Can consistof whole-group or individualstrategies or supports.www.interventioncentral.org366

Response to InterventionResponse to InterventionTier 2: Efficient Delivery of Interventions in Small GroupsTier 2 Group-Based Intervention